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Abstract Scientific writing, while an indispensable step of the scientific process, is often overlooked in undergraduate courses in favor of maximizing class time devoted to scientific concepts.However, the ability to effectively communicate research findings is crucial for success in the biological sciences.

Graduate students are encouraged to publish early and often, and professional scientists are generally evaluated by the quantity of articles published and the number of citations those articles receive The Oxford Today website allows unlimited space for letters which are published in full,   I also deplore the fact that you stuff a good deal of interesting material onto the internet   I was a teacher and I borrowed a pipette from the school's biology lab.   I repeated this every day and each time Simon flew a little further before  .Graduate students are encouraged to publish early and often, and professional scientists are generally evaluated by the quantity of articles published and the number of citations those articles receive.

It is therefore important that undergraduate students receive a solid foundation in scientific writing early in their academic careers.In order to increase the emphasis on effective writing in the classroom, we assembled a succinct step‐by‐Step guide to scientific writing that can be directly disseminated to undergraduates enrolled in biological science courses Results 1 - 16 of 649 - Online shopping for Stationery & Office Supplies from a great   Business, Industry & Science   Office Paper Products : Notebooks, Writing Pads & Diaries : Oxford   Oxford My Notes A4 200 Pages Card Cover Wirebound Notebook   £9.98 (14 new offers)   Last 30 days · Last 90 days   Back to top  .In order to increase the emphasis on effective writing in the classroom, we assembled a succinct step‐by‐Step guide to scientific writing that can be directly disseminated to undergraduates enrolled in biological science courses.The guide breaks down the scientific writing process into easily digestible pieces, providing concrete examples that students can refer to when preparing a scientific manuscript or laboratory report.By increasing undergraduate exposure to the scientific writing process, we hope to better prepare undergraduates for graduate school and productive careers in the biological sciences.

An introduction to the guide While writing is a critical part of the scientific process, it is often taught secondarily to scientific concepts and becomes an afterthought to students.How many students can you recall who worked on a laboratory assignment or class project for weeks, only to throw together the written report the day before it was due? For many, this pattern occurs because we focus almost exclusively on the scientific process, all but neglecting the scientific writing process.Scientific writing is often a difficult and arduous task for many students.It follows a different format and deviates in structure from how we were initially taught to write, or even how we currently write for English, history, or social science classes.

This can make the scientific writing process appear overwhelming, especially when presented with new, complex content.

However, effective writing can deepen understanding of the topic at hand by compelling the writer to present a coherent and logical story that is supported by previous research and new results.Clear scientific writing generally follows a specific format with key sections: an introduction to a particular topic, hypotheses to be tested, a description of methods, key results, and finally, a discussion that ties these results to our broader knowledge of the topic (Day and Gastel 2012).This general format is inherent in most scientific writing and facilitates the transfer of information from author to reader if a few guidelines are followed.Here, we present a succinct step‐by‐step guide that lays out strategies for effective scientific writing with the intention that the guide be disseminated to undergraduate students to increase the focus on the writing process in the college classroom.While we recognize that there are no hard and fast rules when it comes to scientific writing, and more experienced writers may choose to disregard our suggestions these guidelines will assist undergraduates in overcoming the initial challenges associated with writing scientific papers.

This guide was inspired by Joshua Schimel's Writing Science: How to Write Papers that Get Cited and Proposals that Get Funded—an excellent book about scientific writing for graduate students and professional scientists—but designed to address undergraduate students.While the guide was written by a group of ecologists and evolutionary biologists, the strategies and suggestions presented here are applicable across the biological sciences and other scientific disciplines.Regardless of the specific course being taught, this guide can be used as a reference when writing scientific papers, independent research projects, and laboratory reports.For students looking for more in‐depth advice, additional resources are listed at the end of the guide.To illustrate points regarding each step of the scientific writing process, we draw examples throughout the guide from Kilner et al.

(2004), a paper on brown‐headed cowbirds—a species of bird that lays its eggs in the nests of other bird species, or hosts—that was published in the journal Science.investigate why cowbird nestlings tolerate the company of host offspring during development rather than pushing host eggs out of the nest upon hatching to monopolize parental resources.While articles in the journal Science are especially concise and lack the divisions of a normal scientific paper, Kilner et al.(2004) offers plenty of examples of effective communication strategies that are utilized in scientific writing.

We hope that the guidelines that follow, as well as the concrete examples provided, will lead to scientific papers that are information rich, concise, and clear, while simultaneously alleviating frustration and streamlining the writing process.Undergraduate guide to writing in the biological sciences The before steps The scientific writing process can be a daunting and often procrastinated “last step” in the scientific process, leading to cursory attempts to get scientific arguments and results down on paper.However, scientific writing is not an afterthought and should begin well before drafting the first outline.Successful writing starts with researching how your work fits into existing literature, crafting a compelling story, and determining how to best tailor your message to an intended audience.Research how your work fits into existing literature It is important to decide how your research compares to other studies of its kind by familiarizing yourself with previous research on the topic.

If you are preparing a laboratory write‐up, refer to your textbook and laboratory manual for background information.For a research article, perform a thorough literature search on a credible search engine (e.Ask the following questions: What do we know about the topic? What open questions and knowledge do we not yet know? Why is this information important? This will provide critical insight into the structure and style that others have used when writing about the field and communicating ideas on this specific topic.

It will also set you up to successfully craft a compelling story, as you will begin writing with precise knowledge of how your work builds on previous research and what sets your research apart from the current published literature.Understand your audience (and write to them) In order to write effectively, you must identify your audience and decide what story you want them to learn.While this may seem obvious, writing about science as a narrative is often not done, largely because you were probably taught to remain dispassionate and impartial while communicating scientific findings.The purpose of science writing is not explaining what you did or what your audience to understand.Start by asking: Who is my audience? What are their goals in reading my writing? What message do I want them to take away from my writing? There are great resources available to help science writers answer these questions (Nisbet 2009, Baron 2010).

If you are interested in publishing a scientific paper, academic journal websites also provide clear journal mission statements and submission guidelines for prospective authors.The most effective science writers are familiar with the background of their topic, have a clear story that they want to convey, and effectively craft their message to communicate that story to their audience.Introduction The Introduction sets the tone of the paper by providing relevant background information and clearly identifying the problem you plan to address.Think of your Introduction as the beginning of a funnel: Start wide to put your research into a broad context that someone outside of the field would understand, and then narrow the scope until you reach the specific question that you are trying to answer (Fig.Clearly state the wider implications of your work for the field of study, or, if relevant, any societal impacts it may have, and provide enough background information that the reader can understand your topic.Perform a thorough sweep of the literature; however, do not parrot everything you find.Background information should only include material that is directly relevant to your research and fits into your story; it does not need to contain an entire history of the field of interest.Remember to include in‐text citations in the format of (Author, year published) for each paper that you cite and avoid using the author's name as the subject of the sentence: Figure 1 Framing a scientific paper.The structure of a paper mirrors that of an hourglass, opening broadly and narrowing to the specific question, hypothesis, methods, and results of the study.

Effective papers widen again in the discussion and conclusion, connecting the study back to the existing literature and explaining how the current study filled a knowledge gap.The structure of a paper mirrors that of an hourglass, opening broadly and narrowing to the specific question, hypothesis, methods, and results of the study.Effective papers widen again in the discussion and conclusion, connecting the study back to the existing literature and explaining how the current study filled a knowledge gap.(2004) found that cowbird nestlings use host offspring to procure more food.” Instead, use an in‐text citation: “Cowbird nestlings use host offspring to procure more food.2004) Upon narrowing the background information presented to arrive at the specific focus of your research, clearly state the problem that your paper addresses.

The problem is also known as the knowledge gap, or a specific area of the literature that contains an unknown question or problem (e.

, it is unclear why cowbird nestlings tolerate host offspring when they must compete with host offspring for food) (refer to the section “Research how your work fits into existing literature”).The knowledge gap tends to be a small piece of a much larger field of study.Explicitly state how your work will contribute to filling that knowledge gap.This is a crucial section of your manuscript; your discussion and conclusion should all be aimed at answering the knowledge gap that you are trying to fill.

In addition, the knowledge gap will drive your hypotheses and questions that you design your experiment to answer.Your hypothesis will often logically follow the identification of the knowledge gap (Table 1).Define the hypotheses you wish to address, state the approach of your experiment, and provide a 1–2 sentence overview of your experimental design, leaving the specific details for the methods section.If your methods are complicated, consider briefly explaining the reasoning behind your choice of experimental design.Here, you may also state your system, study organism, or study site, and provide justification for why you chose this particular system for your research.

Is your system, study organism, or site a good representation of a more generalized pattern? Providing a brief outline of your project will allow your Introduction to segue smoothly into your 4 section.Constructing a hypothesis A hypothesis is a testable explanation of an observed occurrence in nature, or, more specifically, why something you observed is occurring.Hypotheses relate directly to research questions, are written in the present tense, and can be tested through observation or experimentation.Although the terms “hypothesis” and “prediction” are often incorrectly used interchangeably, they refer to different but complementary concepts.

A hypothesis attempts to explain the mechanism underlying a pattern, while a prediction states an expectation regarding the results.While challenging to construct, hypotheses provide powerful tools for structuring research, generating specific predictions, and designing experiments.Example: Observation: Brown‐headed cowbird nestlings refrain from ejecting host offspring from the nest even though those offspring compete for limited parental resources.Research question: Why do nestling cowbirds tolerate the presence of host offspring in the nest? Hypothesis: The presence of host offspring causes parents to bring more food to the nest.Prediction: Cowbird nestlings will grow at a faster rate in nests that contain host offspring.

Materials and Methods The 4 section is arguably the most straightforward section to write; you can even begin writing it while performing your experiments to avoid forgetting any details of your experimental design.In order to make your paper as clear as possible, organize this section into subsections with headers for each procedure you describe (e.We recommend reusing these headers in your Results and Discussion to help orient your readers.The aim of the 4 section is to demonstrate that you used scientifically valid methods and provide the reader with enough information to recreate your experiment.In chronological order, clearly state the procedural steps you took, remembering to include the model numbers and specific settings of all equipment used (e., centrifuged in Beckman Coulter Benchtop Centrifuge Model Allegra X ‐15R at 12,000 ×g for 45 minutes).

In addition to your experimental procedure, describe any statistical analyses that you performed.While the parameters you include in your 4 section will vary based on your experimental design, we list common ones in Table 2 (Journal of Young Investigators 2005) that are usually mentioned.If you followed a procedure developed from another paper, cite the source that it came from and provide a general description of the method.There is no need to reiterate every detail, unless you deviated from the source and changed a step in your procedure.However, it is important to provide enough information that the reader can follow your methods without referring to the original source.

As you explain your experiment step by step, you may be tempted to include qualifiers where sources of error occurred (e., the tube was supposed to be centrifuged for 5 minutes, but was actually centrifuged for 10).However, generally wait until the Discussion to mention these subjective qualifiers and avoid discussing them in the 4 section.Common parameters included in the 4 section • Site characterization: Description of field site or site where experiment was performed • Experimental design: Sample preparation Important equipment settings (e., temperature of incubation, speed of centrifuge) Amount of reagents used • Statistical analyses conducted (e., ANOVA, linear regression) The 4 section should be written in the past tense: “On hatch day, and every day thereafter for 9 days, we weighed chicks, measured their tibia length, and calculated the instantaneous growth constant K to summarize rates of mass gain and skeletal growth.

2004) While it is generally advisable to use active voice throughout the paper (refer to the section “Putting It All Together,” below), you may want to use a mixture of active and passive voice in the 4 section in order to vary sentence structure and avoid repetitive clauses.Results The Results section provides a space to present your key findings in a purely objective manner and lay the foundation for the Discussion section, where those data are subjectively interpreted.Before diving into this section, identify which graphs, tables, and data are absolutely necessary for telling your story.

Then, craft a descriptive sentence or two that summarizes each result, referring to corresponding table and figure numbers.

Rather than presenting the details all at once, write a short summary about each data set.If you carried out a complicated study, we recommend dividing your results into multiple sections with clear headers following the sequence laid out in the 4 section.As you relate each finding, be as specific as possible and describe your data biologically rather than through the lens of statistics.While statistical tests give your data credibility by allowing you to attribute observed differences to nonrandom variation, they fail to address the actual meaning of the data.Instead, translate the data into biological terms and refer to statistical results as supplemental information, or even in parenthetical clauses (Schimel 2012).

For example, if your dependent variable changed in response to a treatment, report the magnitude and direction of the effect, with the P‐value in parentheses.“By day 8, cowbirds reared with host young were, on average, 14% heavier than cowbirds reared alone (unpaired t 16 = −2.05 (or your other statistical tests yielded nonsignificant results), report any noticeable trends in the data rather than simply dismissing the treatment as having no significant effect (Fry 1993).By focusing on the data and leaving out any interpretation of the results in this section, you will provide the reader with the tools necessary to objectively evaluate your findings.Discussion and conclusion The Discussion section usually requires the most consideration, as this is where you interpret your results.

Your Discussion should form a self‐contained story tying together your Introduction and Results sections (Schimel 2012).One potential strategy for writing the Discussion is to begin by explicitly stating the main finding(s) of your research (Cals and Kotz 2013).Remind the reader of the knowledge gap identified in the Introduction to re‐spark curiosity about the question you set out to answer.Then, explicitly state how your experiment moved the field forward by filling that knowledge gap.After the opening paragraph of your Discussion, we suggest addressing your question and hypotheses with specific evidence from your results.

If there are multiple possible interpretations of a result, clearly lay out each competing explanation.In the cowbird example, a higher feeding rate in the presence of host offspring could indicate either (1) that the parents were more responsive to the begging behavior of their own species or (2) that the collective begging behavior of more offspring in the nest motivated the host parents to provide additional food (Kilner et al.Presenting and evaluating alternative explanations of your findings will provide clear opportunities for future research.However, be sure to keep your Discussion concrete by referring to your results to support each given interpretation.

Intermingled with these interpretations, reference preexisting literature and report how your results relate to previous findings (Casenove and Kirk 2016).Ask yourself the following questions: How do my results compare to those of similar studies? Are they consistent or inconsistent with what other researchers have found? If they are inconsistent, discuss why this might be the case.For example, are you asking a similar question in a different system, organism, or site? Was there a difference in the methods or experimental design? Any caveats of the study (e., small sample size, procedural mistakes, or known biases in the methods) should be transparent and briefly discussed.

The conclusion, generally located in its own short section or the last paragraph of the Discussion, represents your final opportunity to state the significance of your research.Rather than merely restating your main findings, the conclusion should summarize the outcome of your study in a way that incorporates new insights or frames interesting questions that arose as a result of your research.Broaden your perspective again as you reach the bottom of the hourglass (Fig.While it is important to acknowledge the shortcomings or caveats of the research project, generally include these near the beginning of the conclusion or earlier in the Discussion.

You want your take‐home sentences to focus on what you have accomplished and the broader implications of your study, rather than your study's limitations or shortcomings (Schimel 2012).Putting it all together No matter how many boards you stack on top of each other, you still need nails to prevent the pile from falling apart.The same logic applies to a scientific paper.Little things—such as flow, structure, voice, and word choice—will connect your story, polish your paper, and make it enjoyable to read.

The reader should easily be able to move from one concept to another, either within a sentence or between paragraphs.To bolster the flow, constantly remind yourself of the overarching story; always connect new questions with resolutions and tie new concepts to previously presented ideas.As a general rule, try to maintain the same subject throughout a section and mix up sentence structure in order to emphasize different concepts.Keep in mind that words or ideas placed toward the end of a sentence often convey the most importance (Schimel 2012).

The use of active voice with occasional sentences in passive voice will additionally strengthen your writing.Scientific writing is rife with passive voice that weakens otherwise powerful sentences by stripping the subjects of action.However, when used properly, the passive voice can improve flow by strategically placing a sentence's subject so that it echoes the emphasis of the preceding sentence.Compare the following sentences: “The cowbird nestlings tolerated the host nestlings.

” (active) (passive) If host nestlings are the focus of the paragraph as a whole, it may make more sense to present the passive sentence in this case, even though it is weaker than the active version.

While passive and active voices can complement each other in particular situations, you should typically use the active voice whenever possible.Lastly, word choice is critical for effective storytelling (Journal of Young Investigators 2005).Rather than peppering your report or manuscript with overly complicated words, use simple words to lay the framework of your study and discuss your findings.Eliminating any flourish and choosing words that get your point across as clearly as possible will make your work much more enjoyable to read (Strunk and White 1979, Schimel 2012).Editing and peer review Although you have finally finished collecting data and writing your report, you are not done yet! Re‐reading your paper and incorporating constructive feedback from others can make the difference between getting a paper accepted or rejected from a journal or receiving one letter grade over another on a report.

The editing stage is where you put the finishing touches on your work.Start by taking some time away from your paper.Ideally, you began your paper early enough that you can refrain from looking at it for a day or two.However, if the deadline looms large, take an hour break at the very least.Come back to your paper and verify that it still expresses what you intended to say.

Where are the gaps in your story structure? What has not been explained clearly? Where is the writing awkward, making it difficult to understand your point? Consider reading the paper out loud first, and then print and edit a hard copy to inspect the paper from different angles.On the first run‐through of your paper, make sure you addressed all of the main ideas of the study.One way to achieve this is by writing down the key points you want to hit prior to re‐reading your paper.If your paper deviates from these points, you may need to delete some paragraphs.

In contrast, if you forgot to include something, add it in.To check the flow of your paragraphs, verify that a common thread ties each paragraph to the preceding one, and similarly, that each sentence within a paragraph builds on the previous sentence.Finally, re‐read the paper with a finer lens, editing sentence structure and word choice as you go to put the finishing touches on your work.Grammar and spelling are just as important as your scientific story; a poorly written paper will have limited impact regardless of the quality of the ideas expressed (Harley et al.After editing your own paper, ask someone else to read it.A classmate is ideal because he/she understands the assignment and could exchange papers with you.The editing steps described above also apply when editing someone else's paper.If a classmate is not available, try asking a family member or a friend.Having a fresh set of eyes examine your work may help you identify sections of your paper that need clarification.

This procedure will also give you a glimpse into the peer review process, which is integral to professional science writing (Guilford 2001).Don't be discouraged by negative comments—incorporating the feedback of reviewers will only strengthen your paper.

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Conclusion While the basics of writing are generally taught early in life, many people constantly work to refine their writing ability throughout their careers.Even professional scientists feel that they can always write more effectively.

Focusing on the strategies for success laid out in this guide will not only improve your writing skills, but also make the scientific writing process easier and more efficient S-Lab Environmental Good Practice Guide for Laboratories   papers and technical reports which are summarised in this Good Practice Guide.   Saving Money Through Sustainable Procurement of Laboratory Equipment. March   programme has a website run through the health and safety   which requires 14 monthly..Focusing on the strategies for success laid out in this guide will not only improve your writing skills, but also make the scientific writing process easier and more efficient.

However, keep in mind that there is no single correct way to write a scientific paper, and as you gain experience with scientific writing, you will begin to find your own voice.Good luck and happy writing! Additional resources For those interested in learning more about the skill of scientific writing, we recommend the following resources.We note that much of the inspiration and concrete ideas for this step‐by‐step guide originated from Schimel's Writing Science: How to Write Papers that Get Cited and Proposals that Get Funded Letters Oxford Today.We note that much of the inspiration and concrete ideas for this step‐by‐step guide originated from Schimel's Writing Science: How to Write Papers that Get Cited and Proposals that Get Funded.Writing scientific manuscripts: a guide for undergraduates.Journal of Young Investigators, California how to buy a custom natural sciences thesis Standard single spaced 5 pages / 1375 words.Journal of Young Investigators, California.Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 79: 171–172.A student's guide to writing in the life sciences.The President and Fellows of Harvard University, Massachusetts.

Writing science: how to write papers that get cited and proposals that get funded.Acknowledgments We thank Nichole Barger and the University of Colorado, Boulder 2016 graduate writing seminar for helpful discussions that greatly enhanced the quality of this essay.

Potential Conflicts of Interest June 2017 Since childhood I often wondered what it would have been like to grow up with a grandmother or an aunt.I was denied both of those experiences because my one grandmother was gassed in the extermination camp Belzec along with her three daughters and the other one in Treblinka along with her 13-year old son.Though I also lost one grandfather and three paternal uncles, Olivia Gordon's review ( OT, Trinity 2017) for the first time in my life made me reflect distinctly on these women of my family who were killed and what they must have gone through additionally as mothers.Thank you for your choice of reviewing this valuable book.

It surely made their special memory that bit more vivid.Dr Alan D Roth May 2017 I remember the start of surprise I sustained when, many years ago, I heard a headmaster, not an Oxford man, refer to a pupil whom he had sent to ‘New’, and I can sympathise with Mr Seligman’s disquiet on hearing his college referred to in this way.But why always ‘New COLLEGE’? Is it because ‘new’ is an adjective, as a friend of mine (from Corpus) suggested, or because ‘new’ is a monosyllable, or for some other reason? Perhaps only members of New College can tell.There is an explanation of the Old English alliterative metre by C S Lewis.In it he gives examples in modern English of the metre and its variants.

One of his examples is ‘New College knows’, so perhaps this is what New Collegians know.To widen the enquiry; does anybody ever refer to Gonville and Caius College by its full name? A friend of mine who went there always spoke of ‘Caius’, sometimes pronouncing the word as Latin, by way of a kindness to an Oxford classicist.J P C Toalster April 2017 I enjoyed Richard Lofthouse’s piece on the varsity Line which is currently being reinstated as part of a wider East West Rail project.This was not actually a closure instigated by Dr Beeching, who did not include it in the infamous appendix to Reshaping British Railways which listed the lines he thought needed to go.

It was, in fact, the Labour Government that was responsible, pushing British rail to extend the scope of the closures.It was, however, a closure in the spirit of Beeching who prioritised the routes that radiated out from London, a policy now seen as a mistake.The line was never, in fact, fully closed as the section from Bletchley to Bedford retained its passenger trains owing to the difficulty in setting up adequate replacement bus services.Peter Bateman April 2017 Thank you for running Roger Highfield’s piece looking at some of the elephants in the room when it comes to cracking the great energy conundrum of providing increasing quantities of energy with reducing quantities of carbon dioxide ( OT, Trinity 2017).It is, however, a pity that he ignored the biggest pachyderm of them all; the economic assumption that destroying the planet’s climatic system (and, indeed polluting the oceans and eliminating entire species and habitats) comes with no financial cost.

The fossil fuel industry is welcomed, even encouraged by public subsidy, to destroy the climate for profit but pay nothing towards transitioning towards a sustainable future.Perhaps to answer the question ‘Can Oxford save the world?’ you should ask the Department of Economics to come up with some ideas of how we can reorder the working of the global economy to reward activities that nourish the future rather than those that destroy it.Karin Forbes (Davis) Your article on Saving the Swift last week was fascinating.Some years ago I found a young swift in my garden.It had evidently fallen out of a nest or from the sky but I couldn’t see any nest.

It was not fully fledged as its beak was yellow and not yet properly developed.I picked it up and put it in a cardboard box with some newspaper and other soft material and carried it gently into the house.I rang the RSPCA but they didn’t know what to do.The RSPB told me to take it to a local vet and ask for the creature to be painlessly put down.

They explained that there was no hope for it.I was a teacher and I borrowed a pipette from the school’s biology lab.(A pipette is a glass tube with a rubber bulb at one end.) With help from my wife and daughter I mixed some minced meat with milk and forced a little into the bird’s beak, using the pipette.

We repeated this every few hours and soon whenever we entered the room it would open its mouth and expect more.This continued for a week or so and the bird’s beak began to look more normal.Simon grew in strength until we thought he needed some flying lessons.

 I took him into the garden and launched him into the air.There was a great flapping of wings but he fell quickly to the ground.I repeated this every day and each time Simon flew a little further before spectacularly crash landing on the lawn.Then one day he actually flew in a circle and, having gained height crashed into the thatch of our cottage.I went to get a ladder so as to rescue him but just as I rested it onto the roof, a flight of swifts came noisily past, shrieking and screaming as they went.

Simon took off and joined them! It was at once impossible to recognise which one he was.They flew away over our neighbours’ roof tops.I just hope he was strong enough to keep going.So you see, with perseverance it actually is possible to raise a fledgling swift and return him to his friends.John Temple April 2017 The enormous waste of money, resources and brain power caused by Oxford University academics’ obsession with ‘decarbonisation’ is disappointing.

This obsession, based as it is on the corruption of science and funded by neo-fascists who set out to destroy Western industrial civilization in the late 1970s, is a prime example of the hubris of man.Carbon dioxide is 4% of all atmospheric gases, and anthropogenic carbon dioxide is a mere 4% of this.Let’s not dramatise amounts of carbon dioxide as being in the range of 400 to 450 ‘parts per million’ when man-made CO2 is a mere 16 parts per million – an amount which would not cause any ‘global warming’ let alone ‘global warming’ or ‘climate change’ that require Oxford University academics to spend millions to ‘save the world.’ Not just hubris but worldwide deception aided and abetted by Oxford University academics.Ariane Loening Roger Highfield ( OT Trinity 2017) suggests that there are a lot of elephants roaming about in the world of climate change.

One that rarely gets mentioned, despite its size, is militarism.We, as a global community, are now spending not far short of two trillion dollars a year the world’s military.A substantial part of that sum goes towards military production, most of which produces and releases CO2.This elephant is not just one amongst many.It is one whose size could be reduced quite rapidly if the climate change experts acknowledged the link.

The military are supposed to be protecting us.In fact they may be increasing the risks we all face.Bruce Kent April 2017 I think that Ray Smith misses the reason why the decision of Congregation not to award an honorary degree to Mrs Thatcher remains an indelible stain on the record of the University of Oxford.It had long been the custom that Oxonians who achieved the office of prime minister were granted an honorary degree.This applied to Gladstone, Salisbury, Asquith, Attlee, Macmillan, Heath and others.

The honour was not dependent on the political affiliation or policies of the recipient, but on his having reached this great office.Margaret Thatcher not only became prime minister after a less privileged start in life than most of her predecessors, but she was the first woman to do so.To deny her the customary honour was an act of petty malice by the dons.C P Snow in his sadly underrated novels wrote that ‘Cambridge dons are not distinguished men.They are just men who confer distinctions upon one another’ ( The Affair p.

Pari passu the same applies to Oxford dons of the 1980s.Mrs Thatcher bore the insult with dignity, never referring to it.She was consoled by her Honorary Fellowship of Somerville College, which she greatly valued, but to me the matter still leaves a thoroughly bad taste in the mouth.Kenneth Stern April 2017 I believe that Dr Beeching (‘Action stations as Oxford gets new rail platforms’) was either incompetent or dishonest.

There used to be a railway line from Oxford to Fairford.If a passenger bought a ticket to Fairford at Paddington, the branch line was not credited with anything.All freight cargo was credited to the mainline account.The branch line was made to appear very unprofitable because of dishonest accounting.This was not the only subterfuge used to decimate the railway system.

The real reason for Beeching’s vandalism, some argue, was to weaken the railway unions.Interestingly, when Dr Beeching returned to work for ICI, I gather that his post was without any real executive power.Christ Church had given land at Alvescot for the station conditional on the promise to keep it open for railway passengers forever.The Government paid no attention to this promise.British governments have often been thievish and dishonest.

Ask the shareholders and employees of the former Lloyds TSB.Think of the fraudulent claims for PPI which help to keep our economy going at the LBG shareholders’ expense.Alexander Hopkinson-Woolley April 2017 Thanks for sending me the Trinity 2017 edition, full of interest as usual.Sir Geoffrey Hill died on 30 June 2016, not the following day.

As the obituarist is a DNB research editor, I think it’s important to be pedantic so that the error doesn’t live on and perhaps become enshrined in the DNB in due course.To be fair, some other obituaries made the same mistake.I’m sure he’ll want his fine piece to be correct in this particular.Joe Kerrigan I enjoyed bits of Lucy Kellaway’s Oxford memories ( OT Trinity 2017), as I had followed her path to Oxford, two years later, from the same school — Camden School for Girls.

But I could not, at all, relate to her ‘loathing’ of Oxford, based on the ‘privilege and entitlement’ of the place.When I left Somerville, in 1983, I was the first member of my middle-class family (along with one cousin the same age) to graduate from university.When I walked into the Sheldonian Theatre on my graduation day, my grandfather was there to cheer me on.He had grown up as one of 13 children in the East End of London, and left home at 13.When I was at Oxford, it was he and his family who ran the King’s Arms, the pub where Lucy Kellaway drank.

Young people from far less privileged homes than myself have always gone to Oxford, and the University is currently making strenuous efforts to broaden its intake, as outlined in the same issue of Oxford Today.Oxford is considerably less ‘posh’, in this respect, than some other top-ranking universities in this country.Ms Kellaway is now training as a teacher in order to help underprivileged children achieve academic success.This is hugely laudable, but she must remember that she is not ploughing a new furrow, and that generations of teachers (some of them Oxford-educated) have helped young people from poor or non-academic backgrounds to attend Oxford.

Annabel Smith (n e Miller) Ray Smith ( OT, Trinity 2017) overlooks Margaret Thatcher’s divisiveness, not only in life but in death.While one section of British society accorded her a state funeral in all but name, in some other parts people lit bonfires to celebrate her going.But as Mr Smith points out, Tony Blair was also a controversial prime minister — and David Cameron and Theresa May too, in their turns.Ignoring the question about Oxford University’s near-monopoly on 10 Downing Street since 1945, I simply ask why honorary degrees should be offered to any national politicians — beyond, perhaps, the aim of flattery.But Mr Smith should be more careful with his facts.

He writes that under Labour in early 1979, ‘Inflation was in excess of 20% and militant trades unionists were holding the country to ransom.’ In point of fact, in May 1979 retail price inflation stood at 10.3%; when Labour came to power in February 1974 it had been at 13.9% in August 1975; and one year in to Mrs Thatcher’s time, in May 1980, the RPI rate was back up at 21.

Economists still disagree about the causes of the mid-1970s inflation.However, with their members’ real incomes falling so rapidly, it is hardly surprising if many trade unions became ‘militant’.As the Wilson, Heath and Callaghan governments attempted to reduce inflation by controlling incomes, I finally leave open the question whether it was those unions which held the country to ransom or successive governments which held their members’ livelihoods to ransom.Tom Lines April 2017 OT Trinity 2017), with its references to William Williams’s Oxonia Depicta (1733), a volume which he describes as ‘significant’ and ‘curious’.

It will certainly prove to be curious for anyone hoping to use it for research into the history of Oxford’s college buildings and gardens, because as a realistic picture of Oxford it is significantly flawed.Much of what Williams depicted was never actually realised; it seems likely that he was paid to indulge collegiate fantasies about building projects which they would never have the means to realise (a common enough tale — see Howard Colvin’s Unbuilt Oxford, 1983).The most glaring example of this is Trinity College’s great formal garden with griffins atop posts.This impressive engraving is repeatedly reproduced in guides and histories of Oxford, and is also unquestioningly included on Trinity’s website even today, when there is no evidence it was ever actually realised.It would not be fair to cast Williams himself as the villain of the piece here because it was not uncommon for such projections or plans to be published -– they appear with regularity in the Oxford Almanack, too.

But such ‘evidence’ should be treated with care.Incidentally, the one structural element of Oxford’s colleges consistently left out of maps and guidebooks of every date is the principals’ gardens.Even today they are often unmarked on college plans, and they have been left as blanks on the otherwise comprehensive online virtual tour of Oxford concocted by the chemistry department several years ago (see /oxfordtour/).The Rector’s Garden at Exeter College, for example, is hidden away on the other side of the library to the Fellows’ Garden, while New College’s large and bucolic Warden’s Garden is accessed via the bridge that crosses New College Lane.These private domains have been jealously guarded over the centuries, though incursions do occur, as currently at St John’s, where the President’s Garden is being compromised to make way for a new library building.

The principals’ gardens are all clearly marked on the college plans in my own book, Oxford College Gardens (2015).Tim Richardson The cobbled lanes, the dry-stone walls.The cloister-bordered green-square quads; The cap, the gown, the antique bike.The ‘magnificent din’ of distant bells.The washing lines; crimped with pegs The frost-white flapping sheet.The wit, the spark, of youthful minds Shaped by wisdom’s tutor hand.

The books, the labs, the endless talk That filled this intellectual land.

My mind has not, before, or since, On spreading wings all knowledge sought.In urgent haste, with unslaked thirst, I trod the bounds of magic thought.Peter Weygang December 2016 The world population is increasing by 80 million people a year.Whether or not parents teach their children to love nature, the 80 million is unsustainable and an abuse of the environment, by otherwise caring people.It amazes me how little mention the problem gets in the media in New Zealand anyway, where I live.

Because nearly everybody likes children they just sweep the matter under the carpet and ignore it.It is far more serious a problem than the occasional terror attack, which gets massive media coverage, even though relatively few people are killed.Can I ask all Oxford Today readers, regardless of whether or not they have slipped up themselves, to advocate and lobby on a worldwide basis for people to not have children at this time in Earth’s history.People are just being selfish in doing so.I realize that in being alive, I am part of the problem myself, but at least I am not part of the human race’s frenzy of self-interested plague breeding, which is a disaster and atrocity to nature.

Stephen Conn December 2016 While it is amusing that Oxford has ‘bagged’ No 10 again and that we are now 27–14 ahead of the fenlanders (‘Oxford’s 27th prime minister’, Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2016, p.11), it is less entertaining to reflect that many of these Oxonian PMs have presided over both national decline and a coarsening of national life.The deindustrialisation of Britain which has replaced secure jobs with McJobs, the multiplication of food banks to feed hungry and despairing families, the cynical demonisation of the unemployed as scroungers — even stooping to exploit the deaths of children in a fire started by a welfare claimant — by an Oxonian Chancellor who found that it played well in tabloid newspapers, and a disastrously uncritical alliance with George W Bush, have all occurred under Oxonian PMs.Indeed in 2016 the irresponsible behaviour of certain Oxonians of my generation, including one who — as I understand it — campaigned for Brexit in the expectation that it would be defeated but would position him perfectly to become party leader and PM, has plumbed new depths in the narcissistic sense of entitlement which the University’s track record has bred among some of its alumni.This does not suggest that graduates of the University have the pre-eminence in ability or intellect — let alone virtue — which would justify this domination of national leadership roles.

I also receive copies of CAM, the Cambridge equivalent and find the comparison between the two rather interesting. I won’t write at length but my impression of Oxford Today can be summed up by one word – ‘smug’.For example, do we really care that Theresa May is Oxford’s 27th prime minister? The 26th, who adorned the cover of an earlier issue, (MT 2010) has just resigned having lost a referendum that was completely unnecessary, that seems likely to make us all permanently poorer and that may lead to the break up of the United Kingdom and our increasing isolation from the rest of the World.Just read Leszek Borysiewicz’s thoughtful warnings in the current issue of CAM about the implications of Brexit for universities like Oxford and Cambridge.

The 27th Oxford prime minister, a consummate politician, gives no sign that she or any of her three ministers in charge of Brexit negotiations have any idea what lies ahead.Should a UK university feel proud of alumni like these? It was also predictable I suppose that you would want to trumpet on the front page the news that Oxford tops one of the many university rankings.

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Does anyone attach serious value to these? How does CAM deal with Cambridge achievements? Tucked away on page 9 in the current issue under a heading ‘In Brief’ is the news that four Cambridge alumni have won Nobel prizes.Richard Price December 2016 Having lectured on chemistry and chemical physics at the University of Essex, where, many years ago, around 1975, I heard a lecture on the hydrazine fuel cell by a scientist from the Shell Thornton Research Centre, which was closed down some years ago, I was particularly interested in the article by Richard Lofthouse and the comments by Professor Matthias Holweg.Although energy density is important, so is the environment! I think the hydrazine cell which turns the input into water and nitrogen is good on both counts Manuscripts must be submitted online in a double-spaced, blinded format, with pages   the AJE encourages authors to make their data collection instruments, as well as   The Journal strongly discourages the submission of multipart papers.   of publication and Oxford University Press is notified in writing and in advance..

Although energy density is important, so is the environment! I think the hydrazine cell which turns the input into water and nitrogen is good on both counts.

Of course, hydrazine is not a pleasant substance but then filling our cars with hydrocarbon fuel we get a dose of benzeene, a noted carcinogen! A Shell research engineer disparaged their effort as they were a hydrocarbon production company: perhaps that is why they did not pursue their development further.Perhaps then we were not as aware of the problems of Global Warming and local pollution Authors interested in writing a POV may contact the managing editor at   Proposals for CPGs must be submitted through PTJ's ScholarOne submission site.   potential for significant impact on physical therapist practice or rehabilitation science.   field of rehabilitation are considered for fast-track peer review (14 days from  .Perhaps then we were not as aware of the problems of Global Warming and local pollution.I note that a Japanese motor firm has developed a new catalyst for the hydrazine cell and a car using it Authors interested in writing a POV may contact the managing editor at   Proposals for CPGs must be submitted through PTJ's ScholarOne submission site.   potential for significant impact on physical therapist practice or rehabilitation science.   field of rehabilitation are considered for fast-track peer review (14 days from  .I note that a Japanese motor firm has developed a new catalyst for the hydrazine cell and a car using it.I look forward to driving one! Dr David J Greenslade Regarding the letters in Your Voice (Michaelmas 2016), there is surely a case to be made for communities accepting schools which offer an academic education for those who would benefit.This is especially so where none exists currently in the existing comprehensives in those areas larry-wilson.com/laboratory-report/best-websites-to-purchase-a-psychology-laboratory-report-doctoral-american-premium.

This is especially so where none exists currently in the existing comprehensives in those areas.

We also need technical schools in their modern guise of Lord Baker’s University Technical Colleges.Different children have different strengths and aptitudes.They deserve an appropriate education, and all children ought not to be given the same, although making the differentiation at 11 may be too early.There is no reason why introducing, or adding to, the provision of academic ( or technical) education in the state sector, for the relatively small percentage of pupils who would benefit from it, has to condemn the majority to have to attend poor schools, as is often claimed.As about 45-50% of school leavers get into HE, and many come from comprehensives, clearly the mainstream state schools are doing well and would continue to do so even if they lost a small percentage of pupils to the new provision.

The companion school to a grammar does not have to be a one of the poor secondary moderns of the 1950s.Those in the educational establishment , and even the Social Mobility Commission, who complain about the need for more state pupils to get into top universities, and to get top jobs later, have to face the fact that the foundation for all HE is what schools provide.This foundation sometimes has to be more than being a pupil in a school mainly dedicated to getting as many as possible up to level C at GCSE, however laudable that aim is.J V Eason The University tries hard to counter that opinion.But one way in which you aren't living up to that goal is in sending out Oxford Today.

Some plastic can be recycled with carrier bags from the supermarket - this is LDPE: type 4.Responsible companies nowadays print the plastic type so that customers know how to deal with the waste material, but sadly Oxford Today doesn't subscribe to such modern practice.You print an address page when sending out the magazine; it would be simplicity itself to print details of the wrapper on it.Please get yourselves organised and join the modern world of recycling.

Clifton Hughes November 2016 Was I alone in being thoroughly dispirited by the boastful character of the item in the Michaelmas 2016 (29.1) edition, headed ‘Oxford's 27 th prime minister’.Of particular interest to me, as the sole biologist in my year at my college, was the overwhelming preponderance of graduates with PPE degrees in the fanfare list for the current political establishment.I well remember that, due to the dearth of subject matter colleagues in my college, I spent quite a lot of my time in serious discussion and even more serious banter with people who were taking this subject.

I was particularly interested in the economics part of the degree, because if you opened a newspaper during that period (mid-sixties) the subject dominated the discourse.

I came to the subject with the point of view of a scientist, so I was most interested in the question ‘to what extent could it be said that the propositions in (then) orthodox economic theory were true?’.I have to say that it didn't take me long to conclude that at least 80% of what was ‘going down’ was on the contrary, utter garbage.An opinion which I sometimes failed to convey to my fellow students forcefully enough, being of a shy and introverted disposition.My misgivings were myriad, but I realised on later analysis that they all stemmed from the same source, which I would dub ‘soft-Popperism’.My experience of biology taught me that ‘hard-Popperism’ was the philosophical equivalent of religious extremism, but that by contrast, if a scientific hypothesis repeatedly made false predictions, it was indubitably false and if a ‘scientific’ discipline nevertheless continued to believe in such a hypothesis it was by contrast, pseudoscience.

An example would be the study of parapsychology, merely fringe, rather than beyond the pale, back then.Could predictions be made from these hypotheses? – YesWere predictions routinely made on the basis of economic hypotheses by economists? – YesDid these predictions routinely come true? – not just No, but emphatically, repeatedly No.At every scale from questions like ‘What will happen to share price X in the next y minutes?’ to ‘Will measured economic growth be positive or negative next quarter?’ or ‘Will country X grow faster that country Y next year?’.

With the notable exception of self-fulfilling prophecies – wherever on the spectrum from indubitably legal through legal but iffy to indubitably illegal – economics showed itself to be pseudoscience over and over again.Meanwhile, what happened to the dissemination of ‘knowledge’ in the field of economics? It continued to be hewn in tablets of stone, to be assigned the status of holy writ and to dominate public discourse to an equivalent extent to religion in medieval times.Many economists seemed to suffer from the delusion that their discipline was a branch of mathematics.Not only that, but its adherents developed an even greater evangelical intolerance to contrarian views at the university level.This happened to such an extent that it took a recent open revolt by the students of Manchester University to make one of the first cracks in this academic orthodoxy.

A fact which makes me ponder which student body is of higher calibre – Manchester or Oxford? Enough of the E.What can I say? I don't know precisely what gets taught in an academic politics course, but if I judge by the results, I would have thought that at least 50% must be devoted to the philosophy, theory, practical application and camouflage of outright mendacity.Especially its practical application to the following:Short-term political advantageLong-term (lifetime constrained) personal advancement in the fields of power, prestige and money Long-term (inter-generational) structural entrenchment of in-group (largely social class) privilege in every field, but especially wealth accumulation.Well, I don't have much objection, except to say that from my experience, quite a lot of it seems to be ‘angels onpinheads’ stuff.The students I knew in the PPP degree course learnt a lot more stuff of utility to society in general, rather than in personal aggrandisement.So what has Oxford done with that? Abolished in 2010.Oxford should not be willy-waving about the majority of the content of the article.

Tim Drakeford November 2016 In 1937, I won a place to a grammar school – but it was not a free one.Although I was a scholarship boy, my father had to pay a fee, which was rescinded when he joined the Army at the outbreak of World War 2.The 1944 Act was the first one to make grammar school education completely free when it was later introduced by the Attlee government.Later, teaching in a grammar school myself, I had great pleasure in teaching 14 and 15 year olds who transferred from the local Secondary Modern.

No surprise then that all my four children went to a grammar school, two of them later to my own college.Anthony Lodge In my view your article in the current edition of Oxford Today, ‘Oxford’s Prime Ministers’, is verging on the unpleasantly triumphant.The first paragraph comes near to implying that there are ‘Oxonian Prime Ministers’ and the rest.The remainder parades a galaxy of ‘Oxonian’ talent before judgement can be made on the ability to deal with the administrative tasks ahead, as daunting an agenda as any since the Second World War and a matter of greater concern than individual and other rankings in university league tables.

I note that an adjacent article is headed ‘Oxford takes top spot in uni rankings’.I do not expect this letter to be printed.There is already a letter, not all of which I agree with, which touches on the same theme.I simply wish to register that there is another reader who is not comfortable with your approach.Richard Lloyd Jones November 2016 May I lodge a protest at David Holdworth’s reference in the correspondence columns of your recent issue to Margaret Thatcher’s supposedly ‘damaged tenure of 10 Downing Street’.

The recent tribute paid her in the form of her public obsequies hardly testifies to the aspersion.In my opinion she was the greatest of our peacetime premiers in that she inspired and undertook the Herculean labour of restoring the country’s fortunes following over 30 years of cumulative misgovernment.‘We are all socialists these days,’ declared Tory PM Sir Alec Home, and either voluntarily or resignedly involuntarily we were, for no one anticipated a return to national fortune until, as the disastrous ‘seventies reached their climax, our spirited fellow Oxonian planted herself firmly in the path of the seemingly unarrestable socialist juggernaut.There ensued a disciplined rebalancing of the collective and individual interests in place of the nationally crippling imbalance that had prevailed for so many years on the side of the former.Frederic Bradley October 2016 In the Michaelmas 2016 edition you noted the continuing predominance of Oxonians and, in particular, Oxford PPE graduates in the government of the UK.

In the light of this fact, has any thought been given by the University authorities to the tenuous grasp that recent Cabinets have shown of either politics or economics, to how this may reflect on the worth of an Oxford education and to whether the University bears any responsibility? I could also cite the former Education Secretary, also an Oxonian, who, to judge by his opinion of experts, appeared not to value education at all.Paul Richards I was surprised to find that Peter Whitfield ( Oxford Today 29.1, Michaelmas 2016, page 42) thinks that the first artist to publish views of Oxford was David Loggan, 1675.Has he forgotten John Berebock’s series, illustrating the take-home souvenir book presented to Queen Elizabeth I on her first visit to Oxford as Queen in late summer 1566? Bereblock drew each college, etc.

He was well known as a calligrapher and miniaturist.Born c1532, he was an undergraduate of St John’s (Oxford) 1559/60 and Fellow of it by 1562.In June 1566 he moved to Exeter College, have been made its Fellow and Dean that April.See Queens Elizabeth’s Book of Oxford edited by Louise Durning (Bodleian Library, 2006).One of the pleasures of reading the letters in each issue is to note the names, colleges and years of their writers.Of the fourteen letters in Michaelmas 2016’s, four are ‘(online)’ for further details and one is only Michael ‘(online)’.Unless Michael is a peer of the realm, ie Lord Michael (as surname), he should have given his surname.Could you, sir, insist on online writers stating name, college and year each, as before? Then we can place them in their context.Jeremy Godwin October 2016 David Alison and Daphne Hampson’s reports on a bid to create an Oxford-Cambridge direct ail route remind me of the efforts made by the Milton Keynes Transport User’s Group, of which I was chairman in the 1970s, to bring about a ‘Varsity Line’.This would link the Universities in Cambridge with Cranfield University, the Open University at Milton Keynes, Buckingham University, and the two universities in Oxford.I remember a public meeting we held in Bicester, addressed by Christopher Harvie, but this, like our other endeavours, came to nothing.Good luck with the new attempts! Christopher Nankivell October 2016 Your latest issue made me ashamed to have been a graduate (DPhil 1995) and member of staff (1986-92).Theresa May is creating profound uncertainty for my colleagues and students with her regressive, xenophobic, and discriminatory policies.

Please unsubscribe me with immediate effect.Professor Matthew Weait October 2016 A somewhat poor judgement placing the country's unelected Prime Minister on the front page a of a University magazine.I am hard pressed to find any current or past members of the University who have any confidence at all in the development and execution of the current Government's policy since the referendum.Rather it seems to me that the University might prefer to downplay not just Mrs May but also her predecessor, sadly another product of Oxford, who unnecessarily caused the crisis we now find ourselves in.Ian Busby October 2016 Matt Ridley’s adulatory article ‘Gene genius’ on Richard Dawkins’ latest book overlooks the logical and metaphysical incoherence of the latter’s thinking on evolution.

As David Berlinski has pointed out, in ‘The Devil’s Delusion’, ‘the idea that we are all simply ‘survival machines’ seems oddly in conflict with the correlative doctrine of the survival of he fittest’.The point of the Darwinian evolution hypothesis was to eliminate teleology or final causality fro biology.Richard Dawkins’ ‘selfish gene’ theory, however, is nothing if not teleological.

The very word ‘selfish’ betrays – perhaps unconsciously – intentionality and purpose.Indeed, Dawkins is quite correct in ascribing teleology to unconscious genes.As Edward Feser has cogently argued in ‘The Hot Superstition’, ‘Remove the teleological element in the description of DNA and genes and you strip them of everything that makes them explanatorily useful in biology.Tim Williams May I do a ‘pedantry corner’ on Christopher Danziger’s enthralling piece on Felix Yusupov? Rasputin was not the Mad Monk.He was never a monk, and far from being mad was cunning.

But his great enemy the monk Iliodor (real name Sergei Trufanov) entitled his memoirs The Mad Monk of Russia, referring to himself – ‘mad’ most probably in the American sense of angry.The book was published in New York in 1918.Danziger quotes an autopsy report saying Rasputin drowned.Professor Dmitri Kosorotov of the Russian Imperial Military Medical Academy, who carried out Rasputin’s autopsy, wrote that he was killed by a bullet to the forehead.You can see the bullet hole in the photograph of Rasputin post mortem.

 Kosorotov adds that the three bullets that struck Rasputin came from three different guns.Felix Yusupov and Vladimir Purishkevich, the conspirator who was a member of the Duma, described in their memoirs firing the first two shots, but not the coup de grace.This led to the rumour that Yusupov’s old Oxford friend, the SIS officer Oswald Rayner, shot Rasputin.The former ‘C’ of MI6, Sir John Scarlett (Magdalen, 1966), assured me that he didn’t – the official line now for a century, but probably true.For he went on to attack the dead body with a dumb-bell, in particular the genitals, in an uncontrollable frenzy of sexual revenge – the evidence of which Professor Kosorotov vividly described, and which is more or less confirmed in both Yusupov’s and Purishkevich’s memoirs.Rasputin was a plausible and manipulative rogue.Oxford graduate and murderer Yusupov appears to have been, to say the least, seriously weird.John Penycate October 2016 It is, I think, more than slightly unfortunate that the current issue, which features a picture of Theresa May, should carry the caption ‘Oxford’s 27th Prime Minister’.This seems to disregard the many Prime Ministers of many other countries educated here.

In these times of rather dark little-islander mentality, it would be wise of Oxford to be mindful and proud of its international role.‘Oxford’s 27th British Prime Minister’ would have been a much better caption Dr P J E Kail Beeching Report October 2016 May I put in a few words in support of the unfairly maligned Dr.Richard Beeching? Contrary to popular opinion, he did not “cut” a single mile of Britain’s railways.He was appointed by the British Transport Commission to head the new BR Board.

His brief was to stem the massive and increasing losses at a time when the government was pouring vast sums into road transport.

He did a detailed analysis of all aspects of BR.This demonstrated the inefficiency of long-established operating practices, the under-use of much passenger and freight rolling-stock and that, without government subsidy, most branch lines could never make a profit.Most cross-country trains were running almost empty.His report led to Conservative and Labour Ministers of Transport closing several thousand miles of track.It is often forgotten that some closures started and others were scheduled, before the Beeching Report.

Keith Ferris Don Taylor October 2016 I was disappointed to read in Letters (Michaelmas Term 2016) that David Holdsworth was proud of his university ‘when it declined to award the customary honorary degree to Margaret Thatcher’.He went on to say that he hoped the same would apply regarding David Cameron.It made me wonder a) who makes the decision?; b) what are the criteria?; c) on behalf of whom is the decision made? When Mrs Thatcher came to power I was working as a buyer in the building industry.She inherited an economic nightmare from Jim Callaghan’s outgoing Labour government.Inflation was in excess of 20% and militant trades unionists were holding the country to ransom.

A strong leader was needed, and The Iron Lady did not disappoint.Yes, she made some mistakes, but for me, she was the greatest prime minister of my lifetime (I am in my 70s).Clearly, Mr Holdsworth would not agree with me, but that is my point.I assume from his letter that Tony Blair was honoured by Oxford with an honorary degree.For me, he was the worst prime minister of my lifetime, who didn’t seem to think that truth was important, and led us into a war on false pretences.

Again I ask, who decides and on what basis? Ray Smith October 2016 In a coarse gesture that will live in the annals of pettiness and political prejudice, Mrs Thatcher was denied the honorary degree to which she was entitled.I was therefore fascinated to see the letter (in Vol 29 No.1) with a double whammy: praise for the above shameful abuse of impartiality and an equally ‘impartial’ wish for David Cameron also to be cheated of his potential honorary degree.The letter caricatures the Brexit saga, entirely ignoring the compelling democratic necessity for granting a referendum, not that any such issues should affect the bestowal of an honorary degree on an Oxford Prime Minister.The partisan attitude and the ignorant misuse of custom reflect not on these two eminent servants of their country but on their petty detractors.

Aubrey Bowden September 2016 As life is full of wonderful and serendipitous event – not to be taken too seriously, I had occasion quite recently to open my mail and what to my wondering eyes should appear but a copy of your delightful magazine, Oxford Today.A client, who works for the World health Organization, had been kind enough to forward the Trinity Term, 2016, Volume 28, 2 to my attention.She (my client) is a doctor with the WHO and has a little of the pixie in her.Recognizing the title page may bring some amusement, she thought I would ‘get a kick’ out of the cover, ‘The Inside Story of Cecil, How some good might still come front he illegal shooting of Cecil the lion’.Make no mistake, she, like me, takes what happened very seriously and we were both (wasn’t the entire world save for the NRA and the dentist who killed Cecil) mortified at Cecil’s untimely death.

When it actually happened I was inundated with calls and emails from various friends and acquaintances asking if I had shuffled off this mortal coil.My single retort was, unfortunately, a bastardization of Twain.I assured them that reports of my untimely death were greatly exaggerated.I enjoyed the article and have, in fact, been moved to make a donation in my honour through your website.Kimmel hoped, I trust that some good comes from my, I mean Cecil the lion’s untimely death.Cecil J Lyon Let me first of all establish my bona fides, I was at St Edmund Hall for the 1973/74 academic year but left after that without taking ‘finals’.However, I received (in 2016, 42 years later!) a copy of OT in the post along with a mag from Teddy Hall and the latest Oxford History mag, which makes sense, as my course at Oxford was History and Economics.I suspect that interest in, and a contribution to; the Rhodes Statue exercise at Oriel College may have produced these arrivals? Anyhow I have been reading them all with interest, and have now come to the OT magazine, which was interesting 1) because the new V-C of Oxford, Louise Richardson, (Prof), 2) there is a 3-page article on energy from nuclear fusion, which has been an interest of mine since the 1980s, when I asked my elder brother Colin Hunt, who was working for AWE in Tadley, how long he expected the time delay for commercial fusion energy to be.Unfortunately it is still 25 years! There are 2 comments I want to make: 1) The OT article does not discuss the different fusion reactions which can release power, the TOKAMAK, I think or presume, does hydrogen, deuterium and tritium which is good but does deliver one spare neutron per helium atom produced.There are other ways of getting atoms to fuse.2) There is lack of credibility problem for the fusion ‘industry’, e.electricity from nuclear fusion does not even feature on the UK electricity plan.

And also, ominously, electricity, from nuclear fusion, was omitted from expected scientific breakthroughs in the 21 st century by the BBC, at the turn of the century.It seems to be the engineering problems that are most challenging.It is interesting to fond that OT has an interest in this quest.If the hope expressed in the OT article , that the 2 nd half of this century witnesses the commercialisation of fusion energy, then this would indeed be a breakthrough for science and a beneficial one at that! Martin Hunt July 2016 Apart from the economic and political upheaval caused by the Referendum, surely what also have taken a battering are Oxford’s myths and shibboleths that shaped the beliefs, attitudes and behaviour of its graduates who managed the whole affair.From these they imbibed a greater sense of superiority and self-importance than was justified, which in turn encouraged the general public to take more notice of them than was perhaps deserved.

For example the much lauded ‘First in PPE’ is now shown to have little worth in enhancing judgement when the possessor is faced with ‘real life’ political decisions.Cameron, however brilliant his former tutor might have thought him, will still go down in history (and into a future Finals question?) as a weak, unprepared political chancer who unnecessarily put his own and his Party’s interests ahead of the country’s.Next, someone is not ‘highly educated’ just because they read classics at Oxford and can easily inject Latin quotations into a speech or conversation.

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Such was the ruse used by Johnson to give the illusion of intellectual superiority in order to cover deception and to evade giving direct answers to serious questions.

And finally the renowned Oxford Union, though it apes the style of the House of Commons and may thus provide superficial training for a Parliamentary career, certainly does not enhance any unique aptitude or personal trait necessary for the running of the country.

Gove and Johnson prove that holding office in this institution simply encourages a glib tongue, a pompous self-importance and a propensity for the same childish behavior and ambition in national politics as was shown earlier in Frewin Court 7 Mar 2017 - As the government begins its crackdown on essay mill websites, it's   students are under to get top grades for their coursework these days..Gove and Johnson prove that holding office in this institution simply encourages a glib tongue, a pompous self-importance and a propensity for the same childish behavior and ambition in national politics as was shown earlier in Frewin Court.

Perhaps the University would enhance its reputation by using its PR budget to promote more strongly the genuinely valuable contributions made to society by its graduates in science, medicine and the humanities rather than in national politics.A bigger yet probably impossible task might be to try to curb the number of students with an inbred notion of superiority, entitlement and ’the right to rule’ such as featured in the Referendum.Fewer cliques of Etonians and others of that ilk?! John Hawkes July 2016 I read 'Oxford in the Great War' with interest, but there is something wrong with the photo 'Conferment of degrees'.All those in academic dress seem to be wearing D .

All those in academic dress seem to be wearing D.

It includes Sydney Watson, Thomas Armstrong and Ralph Vaughan Williams.But Watson was only 11 years old in 1914 and Armstrong 16.Vaughan Williams was 42, but in the photo looks much too old to be about to volunteer for active service in the army.Isthe cleric on Vaughan Williams' right Rev.

Mus in 1939, so perhaps you've got the wrong war.If this is not so, can anyone shed any light on the photo? Christopher Storr July 2016 I enjoyed your recent article about the psychiatric inspiration for Lewis Carroll but you didn't comment on the provenance of the term "Mad Hatter".

It relates to the neuropsychiatric complications of mercury poisoning, in the 19th century hat industry (most prominently Luton) mercuric nitrate was extensively used in felt making.Over time this affected the central nervous system of workers causing shaking, confusion and emotional instability amongst other ghastly manifestations.Hence the phrase Mad as a Hatter and no doubt sufferers may well have ended up in institutional care.Incidentally Luton retains this industrial link – its football team is locally known as the ‘Hatters’; fortunately there is no longer any need for a qualifying adjective although rival fans may dispute this! John Cahill July 2016 The moral complexity of history is a fascinating topic.‘Rhodes must stay’ (Trinity term 2016) invites a constructive debate about the darker parts of our past we choose to retain, honour, disdain or discard.

I offer a suggestion from Thomas Carlyle, that curmudgeonly, eccentric, surprisingly modern (old-fashioned) poet-historian of the Victorian era: ‘History is the essence of innumerable biographies.’ In our Social-Media-saturated world, we are surrounded by innumerable(visual) biographies, via Facebook and Instagram; we do not censor these stories, we invite a broad, global sharing of the often mundane details of Twitter feeds.If Rhodes was alive today, would he not be given equal air time on our world wide web? Perhaps it is the more disturbing aspects of his Imperialism that makes our politically-correct selves uncomfortable: he invites us to examine (and not project onto others) those parts of our own personae that are the very human, albeit fatally flawed aspects of our ‘innumerable biographies’, still being written, still evolving, but open to the constructive correction that is possible with integrity and self-awareness.Reynaldo Nera Obed May 2016 Oddly, in my opinion, you print on the lead page of the Trinity Term issue three questions and answers from the new Vice-Chancellor and on the very next page refer to her inaugural address without a word about its substance.If I were you, I would have printed it instead, or at least covered it (unless I had decided it not worth printing or covering).

William Josephson Crime fictions May 2016 Tom Gash is clearly doing important work.The first thing that came to mind as I read your review of his book was a quote from an American scientist whose name escapes me: ‘Without religion, good people will do good things and evil people will do evil things.But for good people to do evil things it takes religion”’ Comment? David Leighton I have not been involved in the Rhodes Must Fall movement and therefore cannot speak for those behind the recent campaign to remove Rhodes’ statue from Oriel College.However, Wilfred Attenborough’s letter in the last issue of Oxford Today compelled me to write.Mr Attenborough makes the analogy that those behind this most recent campaign are like ‘an unrepresentative group.

campaigning fanatically for the removal of.reminders of the colonial enslavement of ancient Britons and Anglo-Saxon English’.This comparison is symptomatic of a lack of understanding towards the struggles that Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) students face at Oxford University and in universities around the world.Many of these students are the direct descendants of those enslaved, exploited and mistreated in the building of the British Empire.The overwhelming majority will have experience of overt and covert forms of discrimination prevalent in our society.

They are confronted with reminders all over the University of a painful colonial legacy which continues to affect their lives (and the lives of their families) on a daily basis.To compare them to a long-dead civilisation which has distant relevance to our modern society is spurious at best.Elinor Landeg May 2016 On the letters page in your current issue, Daphne Hampson bemoans slow public transport (taking 3hr 20 mins by bus) between Oxford and Cambridge.She may not know that for over 120 years till 1967 there was a direct railway line over the 77 miles between the two university cities via Bletchley and Bedford, the fastest trains taking 2 hours.(Indeed, the wartime Bletchley Park establishment was located there for convenience of access from the two centres of learning!) This railway has been much missed ever since, and its reinstatement is a live issue – see Indeed, the first part of this, to Bicester, is being opened this year (initially with trains to London Marylebone) as reported on your News page.

Full support from both universities would doubtless help to expedite completion of the project.Until then, albeit with a couple of changes of train, the journey to Cambridge can be done every half hour via London in about 2 hrs.So, no need for minibuses and new booking systems! David Dixon April 2016 Daphne Hampson does not realise now fortunate she is with a limited stop bus every half hour to Cambridge.From my home in Bedford I was fortunate enough to attend each university in turn 1957-62.I remember the beginning of the Oxford service after WWII.

There were four buses a day and the journey was 2 hours 55 minutes: rather oddly the route started at Aylesbury.Cambridge was one hour 40 minutes by the faster route and continued to Northampton, which did offer a direct service to Birmingham after Beeching closed the railway.We used the Premier travel Saturday/Sunday coach via Bedford or Luton and the Bedford-Birmingham buses in vacations.

Slower than hitchhiking when I was in the RAF, they were reliable and not excessively slow.

The Oxford bus passed my home road and my lodgings in Canterbury Road which shortened the journey.The railway to Bletchley was inconvenient then: the line survived Beeching but the Cambridge line did not.We still cross England from Devon by car and find better roads are countered by speed limits and more traffic.I no longer travel for meetings but when I did, I wrote several times to point out that punctuality is more important than speed.Oxford is still the centre of England (if not of the universe!.

) We were married and held our Golden Wedding there; but London remains the hub of transport.David Keep I read with interest the feature article in the Oxford Today Vol 28 No2 on Cecil the lion and wish to congratulate Prof Macdonald for the excellent work he and his colleagues are doing for the betterment of wildlife and in particularly for the lions of Zimbabwe.I am however concerned with some statements in the article.It implies that 90% of the number of lions that were there a century ago have vanished – a very good reason to introduce a total ban on the trophy hunting of lions and indeed other wild animals.There should also be severe fines if proved.

If this is not followed very soon the only thing left to call a ‘lion’ will be the heads of lions mounted on the walls of the trophy hunters (or their descendants).As man encroaches the habitat of the wild animals in order to acquire more land for farming or industry it will be inevitable that some will be killed by the farmers – either through revenge for killing one of the family members by the lions or just to protect their farm or property.It is also sickening to note that if one is prepared to pay up to $100,000 then it will be easy to get a ‘licence to kill’.No wonder the Zimbabwe authorities issued a statement to the effect that ‘regulated and well-managed, responsible and ethical hunting can provide multiple benefits in Zimbabwe to local communities and the national economy’.I urge the Professor to use his good offices to request a total ban and a severe fine for ‘trophy killing’ of wild animals anywhere in Africa.

Dr Y Wickramasinghe April 2016 Wilfred Attenborough’s letter about Cecil Rhodes was mostly very sensible.But the opening sentence stuck in my craw (‘Cecil Rhodes will be a hero to few of the Citizens of this country’).Admittedly it would be improved if ‘country’ were changed to ‘university’, but the implication would still be that the few must be stupid or vicious.As it happens, I am not much given to hero-worship.Worshippers of Ghandi, for example, always seem to me childish.

Nor do I care whether many or few agree with me.But whatever Rhodes’ faults (I prefer people who have faults) I admire his vigorous and visionary life, passed under the constant threat of imminent death.I sympathise with his aims if not always his attitudes.Conversely, I deplore the well-meaning creatures who in effect handed over Southern Rhodesia to Robert Mugabe and, through weakness or ignorance, congratulated themselves on a job well done.

However I remember that in the Boer War most liberals were on the side of the Boers, and I allow myself to smile.R P Taylor April 2016 Are you a member of the Oxford & Cambridge Club? If so, may I ask your help with a somewhat bizarre request? I am seeking to join the Oxford & Cambridge Club, which needs no introduction.As an academic and Oxford graduate I have all the necessary credentials, I’m told, but the club insists that I be nominated by two current members.In my dotage, I have lost touch with my Oxford friends and know nobody now who might be a member.Would it be forgivable of me to ask if anybody who is a current club member would be willing, out of charity, to nominate me? True, I would be a stranger to you but you can discover a little about me from my books at Amazon.

) My full CV is also available on request.I’d be delighted, and most grateful, to hear from you at: [email protected] Dr Nigel Robinson April 2016 Let us give John Gray his due.The Quaker academic and writer Wolf Mendl once spoke in the 1974 ‘Swarthmore lecture’ of the contrast between two types of people whom he called ‘prophets’ and ‘reconcilers’.

John Gray is clearly a prophet, in the Old Testament sense – pinning down with a fierce and analytical eye the shortcomings of his hearers and warning them in no uncertain terms exactly where they are falling down on the job of being human.The question this raises is: what response can we make to this challenge? Can we find a better way? Peter Bolwell August 2015 Your Good Sport item on the OUMDC (Trinity term 2015) led to two very Veteran Members looking back on ‘their days’.In the late 1950s-early 1960s the Motor Drivers’ Club flourished on rather different motor sport events.There were two road rallies, an afternoon rally.The Cotswold Rally late in the Michaelmas term, a closed event with the Oxford Motor Club which ran in the Northern Cotswold between Banbury-Deddington and Burford-Northleach.

The second was the Targa Rusticana – restricted night rally in the Cotswolds and the Welsh Border-Forest of Dean.This attracted entries from the Combined Universities Motor Club (CUMC), the Oxford Motor Club, Eight Clubs and the Hants & Berks MC.The Combine Universities brought entries from Cambridge University AC, the London University MC including the London Hospitals.The Targa took place at the end of Hilary term, when, hopefully a dusting of snow might make things ‘interesting’.The OUMDC held fortnightly meeting, from 1956 at the University Air Squadron.The President for that year, John Clay (Queen’s) who was an aircrew member, negotiated the venue.At a time when the majority of University Clubs and Societies could not meet on licensed premises, except for the Oxford Union, this was not to the Proctor’s ‘liking’.These meeting were talks by personalities, Mike Hawthorn, Roy Salvadori, Duncan Hamilton, John Cooper – his Cooper 500 car were at the height of their form and the Cooper Climax was challenging the Ferraris, Alfa Romeos, Gordinis.

Journalists – particularly Laurence Pomeroy (Motor) who gave an annual talk on ‘The Motor Car’, our John Thornley of MG Cars, Abingdon.

Alternate weeks there were film shows and table top rallies.The feature of the Summer term was Driving Tests at firstly the Air Squadron.Then when it became vacant the Merton Gun Park – east of the Otmoor village, again a restricted event OUMDC, OMC, CUAC.The last of these Driving Tests was at RMCS Shrivenham – now the Defence Academy of Cranfield University – on their parade ground, which was an Inter-University event co-organised with the RMCS motor club.The question whch Christopher Baron and I would like to know is the whereabouts of the two trophies bought in the 1950s for the OUMDC events? They are the Targa Plate which was an annual award with a replica trophy for the winner to keep, to the winner of The Targa Rusticana Rally.

This may have been given into the care of an event winner in the 1950s.This was for the best overall performance in OUMDC events by a membr.It ws given, again an annual trophy with a small replica in memory of David Goddard (Univ) who was killed when his Syandard 10 overturned.That was in the dyas before seat belts were compulsory and he was travelling home from the school he was at teaching practice at.

David, who lived at Chichester was, like one, a geographer.The band on the cup reads: Presented in the memory of David R Goddard 1935-1957, sometime Secretary and President Both trophies were subscribed to by the membership and veteran membership of the time.We would hope if we can ‘find them’ to link the holders with the present OUMDC and hopefully bring them ‘back into use’.Mr Baron lives at Thames Cottage, 11 Camden Place, Bourne End, Bucks, SL8 5RW.David Cooper Sir David Butler August 2015 I have been asked by Nuffield College to write a biography of Sir David Butler, the eminent psephologist and historian, who many of you will have seen on television, especially on the late-night general election results programmes between 1950 and 1979.

I am having a fascinating time interviewing David, who is now 90 and still lives in Oxford.I would like to speak to anybody who has interesting recollections of meeting, being taught by, or working with David.Please email me on [email protected] phone 07762 601173.Michael Crick August 2015 I was delighted to read the article on the Oxford University Motor Drivers' Club (OT 27.2), and to note its recent success in kart racing.

Back in the '60s, I was a club member, with meetings held at St Cat's and Keble.As the article says, the Club was not involved with kart racing then, but I was, racing karts with 200cc Spanish Bultaco engines and five speed gearboxes, all over the country, with a sixth and two fourth places in that class at the British Championships between 1966 and 1970.My racing was interrupted by a medical career, but I kept two of those karts, and in retirement I now run them in Historic Kart Club events.Dougall Morrison August 2015 I was interested to read Christopher Danziger's article ‘Napoleon's last resting place’ in the Trinity 2015 issue of Oxford Today.For many years I was custodian of a death mask of Napoleon which formed part of the Heber Mardon collection of Napoleana housed in the Westcountry Studies Library in Exeter.

This mask was originally the property of the Scottish army doctor Archibald Arnott who replaced Napoleon's surgeon Francesco Antommarchi at the Emperor's bedside in April 1821 and was present at his death.He presented it to John Gawler Bridge from whose estate it was purchased by Maggs in 1911.From Maggs it was obtained by Heber Mardon who bequeathed it to Exeter City Library in 1925.It was thought by Baron Eug ne de Veauce to be one of only five masks made on St.Helena, and to be the first copy made after the Antommarchi archetype, now in Les Invalides.

The history of the death mask is indeed complex and controversial and has spawned several books and many articles, including: The story of Napoleon's death-mask told from the original documents by G.Watson (John Lane, Bodley Head, 1915), Le Dr.

Antonmarchi ou le secret du masque de Napol on by Fran ois Paoli (Publisud, 1996), Napol on post mortem : Deux articles sur le masque mortuaire de l'empereur, suivis d'une analyse by Jacques Jousset (Lyon, Imprimerie Bosc, 1958) and L' affaire du masque de Napol on by Eug ne de Veauce (Lyon : Eug ne de Veauce, 1957.It also attracted a variety of fanatics to Exeter, including one who wanted to DNA test the lock of Napoleon's hair also in the collection in an attempt to prove that Napoleon was rescued from St Helena by submarine and replaced by one of his doubles.Ian Maxted July 2015 Many futuristic ideas about life in 20165 seem distinctly old-fashioned.Electric flying cars and elevated monorails come from Fritz Lang’s film Metropolis or from Le Corbusier’s plans for an ideal city in the 1920s.The magnetic levitation (Maglev) monorailway as proposed by WestOxMonorail was invented more than half a century ago.

Very few lines have ever been constructed and some, as in Sydney, have already been closed, as they are expensive and impractical.Elevated railways need elevated stations, with lifts, stairs and escalators, switching trains from one track to another is very complicated and two tracks are necessary for the two directions, and it is very difficult to rescue passengers in the event of a crash or breakdown.As for a mile-long tunnel from The Plain to the railway station, it may be thinkable but the civil engineering is not feasible.Transport subways need access ramps at each end, and it would be necessary to demolish half of St Clements to construct the access at the east end.

The subway would need stations, and it would be not be possible to have lifts and escalators coming up in the middle of the High Street or at Bonn Square.The ideal future transport could be provided by electric trams running in the street, as proposed in a recent paper by Nicholas Falk and Reg Harman.Trams are quiet, clean and fume-free, with modern technology they can run without overhead wires in the historic city centre.Martin Smith June 2015 I read your feature by Jayne Nelson with considerable interest.

The photograph of ‘what are thought to be, members of the University College Boat Club for whom he coxed 1961’ was in fact taken in the Radcliffe quad at Univ in June 1962 and I am sitting on the bench.

I have a copy of the other photograph taken two minutes earlier or later which is better of me but less flamboyant of Hawking.We were the only two undergraduate freshmen whose Christian name was Stephen of the 90 who came up to Univ in the Michaelmas of 1959.Seeing a photograph of myself on the front cover of his autobiography My Brief History published two years ago in Waterstones window, I purchased a copy.You have quoted the following paragraph: ‘I felt rather lonely during my first year and part of the second.I my third year, in order to make friends, I joined the Boat Club as a coxswain.

My coxing career was fairly disastrous, though.’ Oh dear! As I wrote to Hawking on reading this paragraph it is absolute tosh! It is about as accurate as ‘the earth is flat and the sun goes round it!’, at least as far as timing of his joining the Univ Boat Club is concerned.I cannot comment with authority on his happiness except to say that we were good friends for the whole of three years, enjoyed all sorts of experiences on the river as I describe below and played many evenings of bridge over a bottle of port with the junior dean, Tony Firth, and sometimes with his friends Francis Hope and Jeremy Lever who were fellows of All Souls, but always for very small stakes! The fact is that Hawking and I joined the Univ Boat Club in the first week of our first term in October 1959 and I rowed and he coxed the college’s entry in the Christ Church Regatta for Novice Eights in November when he was still 17.The crew is pictured on page 33 of his My Brief History with the trophy we won held by the stroke (because he had rhythm) Bayan Northcott, later music critic of the Sunday Telegraph, and I can of course name all the rest.His editor could not have tried very hard to corroborate the text and the date of the illustration.

He goes on to claim that in his first bumping race (the Christ Church Regatta is rowed side-by-side) his bung got caught in the rudder lines, which I recall occurred in the Torpids in 1960.But by the Summer Eights he coxed us (the Univ Second VIII) to four bumps and we won our oars! I have the blade to prove it.I have many rowing photographs of Stephen in the years before he claims to having joined the Boat Club and it would be sad indeed if history regarded the wholly inaccurate statement quoted in your Trinity Term issue (p.I may add that Stephen has acknowledged to me through his office that my recollection is in accordance with the facts and his is entirely untrue! Stephen Cockburn June 2015 Your feature in the Trinity Term issue on the Oxford University Motor Drivers’ Club reminded Chris Baron and me of our OUMDC days.

Chris co-ordinates some veteran members and as a previous secretary (1965-67) provides some history of the club.It is now some 70 years since the OUMDC was revived after the war.Those were days when undergraduates fortunate enough to own a car were required by the proctors to have a small green light on the front to indicate ownership by a junior member of the University.The club name followed its revival — possibly pre-war — after the proctors had closed the Oxford University Motor Club.It is unclear if this followed a High Street time trial; Longwall Street junction to Carfax or a sprint trial round St Giles! The proctors were entrusted with the Club’s trophies, but when asked about them in the 1950s they could not be found.

In my time with the OUMDC we purchased two trophies, which seem to have disappeared by the time the club officers were asked about them in the 1990s.Would it be possible, please, to ask if anyone knows their whereabouts? The Targa Plate was given to the overall winner of the Hilary Term overnight rally — usually through the Welsh Borders.

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At the time night rallies were controlled-speed navigational exercises to which other clubs were invited, including CUAC (Cambridge University), obviously; the Combined Universities Motor Club, which was coordinated by one of our senior members, Pat Stark, who then lived in Kidlington; the Hants & Berks MC; and the Oxford Motor Club.The rally usually began in Burford or Chipping Norton and ended at breakfast time where it began.The Goddard Cup was for the best overall performances in the club events by a member who was still ‘up’ Scientific Writing Made Easy A Step by Step nbsp Wiley Online Library.The Goddard Cup was for the best overall performances in the club events by a member who was still ‘up’.

It was bought in memory of a president, David Goddard (Univ, 1953-7?) who was killed driving his Standard 10 whilst doing teaching practice as part of his PG Diploma.If anyone does know in whose possession these trophies are Chris Baron and I would be glad to know and we would like to see them ‘back in use’ by the present OUMDC This brief manual gives guidance in writing a paper about your research. Most of the advice   parts—details of how standard equipment works, for instance. Find..If anyone does know in whose possession these trophies are Chris Baron and I would be glad to know and we would like to see them ‘back in use’ by the present OUMDC.David Cooper From probation officer to Professor of Poetry June 2015 I find it rather alarming and mystifying that one of the first comments made by the newly elected Professor of Poetry, Simon Armitage, is that poetry is ‘a muddy art form This brief manual gives guidance in writing a paper about your research. Most of the advice   parts—details of how standard equipment works, for instance. Find..David Cooper From probation officer to Professor of Poetry June 2015 I find it rather alarming and mystifying that one of the first comments made by the newly elected Professor of Poetry, Simon Armitage, is that poetry is ‘a muddy art form.’ I hope he has a clearer idea of his subject matter before he starts lecturing.

May I suggest Robert Graves’ definition of poetry as ‘the profession of private truth, supported by craftsmanship in the use of words’ as a good starting-point best websites to order a college transportation law case study 75 pages / 20625 words Standard College Sophomore.May I suggest Robert Graves’ definition of poetry as ‘the profession of private truth, supported by craftsmanship in the use of words’ as a good starting-point.Paul Gittins June 2015 Oxford Today, Trinity 2015).I agree, and offer an engineer’s point of view.It’s not love, or even money, that make the world go round: it’s inertia.Our little island is ideal for harnessing the energy of tides and there are many ingenious ways of doing this, both small and local, The Earth’s inertia is one of the greatest gifts we’ve got and we should make more use of it.

And don’t worry about its inevitable unrenewable energy cost: our descendants will have died out long before the resulting lengthening of their days or increase in their weight become perceptible.Peter Puller-Strecker The front cover of the Trinity Term edition of Oxford Today shows an arrow pointing downwards.Taissa Csaky and Richard Lofthouse use this arrow to illustrate their article on ‘Oxford in 2065’.They suggest that, since there is a height restriction on new buildings in the centre of the City, ‘digging and tunnelling’ is one answer to creating more space for the University and its colleges.The authors recall that the work on the New Bodleian in the 1930s first set this trend of expanding downwards.

When the underground book stack of what is now called the Weston Library was dug out Rupert Bruce-Mitford, a graduate of Hertford, then working at the Ashmolean Museum, made a record of the archaeology of the site.This research virtually established the study of medieval archaeology in England.After the war Martyn Jope, a graduate of Oriel, took forward Bruce-Mitford’s work.His work on sites such as the present Clarendon Centre, which was first developed by Christ Church in 1954-5, demonstrated the importance of Oxford’s Late Saxon archaeology.Since the 1950s the work of these two pioneers has been continued and expanded by later archaeologists.

For instance, evidence for Roman occupation was found during the construction of the underground Radcliffe Science Library extension.Oxford Archaeology’s 2004 publication, entitled Oxford before the University, conveniently summarises another aspect of this research.Today archaeologists continue to make important discoveries in the City.This year significant excavations are in progress in advance of underground library developments by Magdalen and Queen’s.

Oxford’s heritage is to be found not only in its buildings and skyline, but under its streets and quadrangles too.

‘Digging and tunnelling’ is not as straightforward a solution to finding more space as it may first appear.It comes at a significant cost in terms of the destruction of the unique record of the City’s and the University’s buried history.Furthermore developers who wish to destroy archaeological remains are now required to fund any necessary recording, publication and archive creation, as a condition of planning permission.Tom Hassall In the Trinity 2015 edition of Oxford Today there is a fascinating feature on the possible future of Oxford 2065.It addresses many issues that are close to my heart, some of which sound quite promising.

However, were all of these things to become true, there will be a severe reduction in jobs in the area.Robot scouts, driverless transport, no Royal Mail or other parcel delivery companies, to name just a few of the eliminated jobs.Oxford will turn into a city inhabited only by those privileged enough to have attained a higher qualified profession.It sounds like the Oxford of 2065 might become a social mobility nightmare! I hope that the realistic future enables those in charge to remember that human interaction is a much valued and not to be overlooked cog in the functioning of a valuable society.Gary White June 2015 I just saw in your recent alumni email that you have a report on this student that is going on the Mars One mission.

I just wanted to suggest that you should be a bit more careful when choosing these stories, as it is very likely that the whole Mars One project is an enterprise with no real future that only justifies itself through the hype that it is creating.There’s pieces of news backing this up, and honestly it seems quite surprising that so many people can take it so seriously, but I don’t think many of these people are really sure of what they are talking about.I can probably find more evidence if you so require.If despite this you think this is still a relevant piece of news, fine, but I’d like to think that your newsletter aims for a rigour stronger than that any hopeful news about this mission could have.Alvaro Martin Alhambra May 2015 The more I read articles, such as Professor Ash, on Charlie Hebdo, on free speech ( Oxford Today, Trinity 2015), the more I am left with the sad reflection that it is not really free speech that is threatened.

The entire thinking world salutes free speech and those who do not, cannot or do not wish to think straight.Rather it seems to be a death wish by a group of people whose effort and life sadly seems to be wasted and who inadvertently drag others to death alongside with them.C Propopulos Could you cover…? I write to suggest a piece in Oxford Today on C N Francis, formerly in command of the Norrington Room at Blackwell’s.Mr Francis was for me, as for many other students and dons, an unfailing resource for books on theology, whether newly published or newly exhumed from libraries being dispersed.

I am confident that your readers would be pleased to see an article about a hero to impecunious theologians in urgent need as a tutorial, a lecture, or even a DPhil thesis deadline loomed.I note that Mr Ken New, for many years Mr Francis’ assistant and now in charge of the Norrington Room, would doubtless be willing to provide an entertaining array of anecdotes for such a piece.With appreciation for the excellence of Oxford Today, as for your kindness in considering my suggestion.John I Durham May 2015 Finally an article dedicated to the Oxonian side of Stephen Hawking! After so much TAB emphasis in the film The Theory of Everything it is time for the world to realise that it was Oxford that provided the foundation for Hawking’s innovation and mischief-making.Jayne Nelson’s ‘Hawking at Oxford’ ( Oxford Today, Trinity 2015) is a refreshing look at genius, because it underscores a trait that Hawking shares with Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Professor Higgs: a playfulness of spirit, and a light-hearted approach to work that is based on adventure and indirect discovery.

This is very inspiring to students: anyone who has struggled with exams or assignments should keep on mind that some of the world’s greatest scientists recognised the equal importance of leisure/library.The image of a naughty Hawking waving his handkerchief in the air calls to mind another famous Oxonian: Magdalen College graduate Oscar Wilde, who found it difficult to live up to his blue china, and boasted about doing little work (when in fact he was a work-horse, and was a sartorial Trojan horse at parties).But on a more serious note: play is a crucial step in creativity.I’ve seen it first-hand in my daughter Leonora, whose playful spirit and emphasis on joy that does not deny competition and hardship, but rather, focuses on one’s individual gifts: what can I bring to the world that is unique and distinctive? Oxford, when will our version of a Hawking movie come out? This would be a wonderful film, very comedic and young-at-heart and a true-story of Oxford blues and the rowing tradition.Reynaldo Nera Obed May 2015 ‘Oxford in 2065’ was typical Flash Gordon futurism: extrapolating from today into the future.

But it never works, for two fundamental reasons.The first is that it ignores human behaviour.Driverless cars owned by the city or some other third party will rapidly be vandalised.Only personal ownership imbues a sense of duty of care.That’s why phone boxes on council estates are always out of order whereas mobile phones owned by those estate-dwellers are looked after.

The second issue is that innovation isn’t linear.No one predicted Google or Facebook twenty years ago.Bill Gates’ famous book The Road Ahead was wrong on pretty much every major prediction about the way technology would go, and he was at the time of publication the ultimate tech geek.So if he couldn’t get it right, how can we expect anyone else to do so with an equivalently blinkered perspective? We can be sure that human behaviour won’t change and therefore short-sighted personal goals will always weigh far heavier in the scheme of things than far-sighted general social goods.We can also be sure that the pace of technological development coupled to basic economics will mean that many of the supposedly promising developments today will fall by the wayside and entirely unseen (but actually quite foreseeable) technologies and applications will dominate the world of 2065.

Coupling technological understanding to evolutionary psychology could save a lot of investors a lot of wasted money and likewise help entrepreneurs to get it right more often, more quickly.Allan M Lees May 2015 Christopher Danziger outlines the extraordinary story of how Napoleon’s death mask came to be at the Maison Fran aise ( Oxford Today, Trinity 2015).Perhaps even more surprising is that it is not the only one in Oxford.Lord Curzon (Chancellor 1907-1925) bequeathed his collection of Napoleonica to the University, where it is preserved in the Bodleian Libraries.The Sir Colin Lucas Room — the Vice-Chancellor’s reception and robing room — in the Clarendon Building is furnished and decorated with these memorabilia.

Included in the bequest (though not currently kept in the Sir Colin Lucas Room) is Napoleon’s death mask.Danziger describes how Antommarchi released a subscription edition of the mask in 1833.The same mould was also used for a re-issue of four further copies c.

1840, and one of these was later purchased by the Napoleon scholar A M Broadley.

Lord Curzon (who had visited St Helena in 1908) bought much of Broadley’s collection when it was sold in 1916, and it seems likely that he acquired then the death mask now in the Bodleian.Michael Heaney, Formerly Executive Secretary, Bodleian Libraries Molecular marmalade May 2015 I was interested to read about Napoleon’s death mask ( Oxford Today, Trinity 2015).In the museum of Zugdidi, Georgia, they claim to have one of only three death masks of Napoleon, because Salome, daughter of David Dadiani, last prince of Mingrelia (Western Georgia) married Achille Murat, grandson of Marshal Murat and Napoleon’s sister Caroline.They also have 6,000 books of his, I believe.I’d be curious to know how and if this fits into Christopher Danziger’s story (particularly as the fifth edition of my Bradt Travel Guide to Georgia is being edited now).

Perhaps it’s one of the ‘four, or possibly six’ casts taken from the prototype.Tim Burford Even Stephen Hawking recognized the danger of the ‘grey men’.I have just read Oxford Today’s Trinity 2015 issue (as a physics graduate I probably should have understood more of it than I did), but I am moved to comment on the lack of anything that sounded like the cultural and social atmosphere that was ever-present 60 years ago.I am lost in admiration of the deeds of present-day Oxonians, but where are all the eccentrics and oddities that used to provide the main constituents of the exciting mixture that was Oxford in my day? I have personally achieved little of interest that will go into my obituary, but I believe I absorbed at Oxford a huge amount of culture, learned how to enjoy and discuss almost any subject and above all how to have fun.Has Oxford changed a lot? I used to do tutorials with Konnie, a young Greek god who used to put Chanel No 5 on his feet.Michael Grace, our brilliant tutor, was much more interested in learning about Konnie’s love life than in teaching us atomic physics.One day Konnie took me to his room to see his grandmother.‘She is in this suitcase,’ he explained, and opened it to reveal several large hunks of meat chopped up and wrapped in polythene.A friend of his had shot a deer in Magdalen Park and he was hiding the proceeds for him.

John had a cousin who worked at Sotheby’s, and somehow managed to furnish his rooms in Meadow Buildings with sumptuous silk tapestries and exquisite old masters from all over the world.Gorgeous Robin was thrown through a closed window by a drunken Rugger Blue whom he had invited to dance with him.Lovely Vicky, an accomplished painter and jazz singer, kept a huge pet snake in her bedroom (a place much visited by eager young undergraduates).Bruce was a member of the Bullingdon, ran the Christ Church beagles and was the perfect example of the ‘Peckwater Bloody’.I could go on, but I hope my point is made.There are probably many like these at Oxford today: if so, your columns could do more to reflect the fact.

Adrian Petch Oxford Today, Trinity 2015, p.32) made me wonder what university it was that I attended in the late fifties.Of course we all knew that there was a gilded bubble for the rich dilettante (and occasional genius), but the prevailing attitude of the rest of us was not anti-work.My ‘grey’ friends included grammar school entrants with scholarships, and, up at the Clarendon laboratory, we all got on with it.It is a great pity that the Brideshead Revisited image of Oxford has been so long a-dying.

Twenty-five years after I graduated, my son rejected Oxford for this reason and obtained his degrees in theoretical physics and astronomy elsewhere.Michael Wray April 2015 Regarding Nevill Swanson’s letter of October 2014, not only is the 287 innings of R E ‘Tip’ Foster (Univ) against Australia in 1903 the highest for England in Australia, but I believe it is the highest by any non-Australian in Australia.John Kinory (Not an Oxford man, but I did captain UCL’s University Challenge team in the halcyon days of Bamber Gascoigne, and my wife is an Oxford D Phil and currently a post-doctoral researcher at the Institute of Archaeology.) John Kinory April 2015 Oh dear — one would have thought that the Editor would have known better than to write ‘centred around’ (‘Portrait’, Oxford Today, Douglas Lee There are alternatives to the vision concerning energy set out by Barbara Hammond ( Oxford Today, Trinity 2015, p.Her assertion that energy will cost more, made affordable by using less of it, carries with it the implication of falling productivity and economic decline.An alternative vision is of cheap and almost limitless power as represented by the work going on just down the road at Culham.The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change points out in its Working Group III report that it will take all our technologies to decarbonise our energy supply, and that restricting solutions to the renewables taxonomy will lead to less of a solution, or a failed solution.It also points out that we need to use the cheapest solutions or else we will damage the fabric of society through careless use of a finite resource — money.Neighbouring France has already decarbonised its electricity, using 76 per cent uranium fuelled nuclear and 11 per cent hydro-electric power.

In the process it has delivered electricity bills at the lower end for Europe.It makes an Oxford vision of getting there expensively by 2065 look a bit weak.By comparison, the main renewable contenders are all intermittent, and as the IPCC points out require extra measures (store and recover technologies) to meet demand, or else they are lame ducks.Unavoidably those processes will consume some of the initial energy and incur process plant costs.For solar photovoltaics in particular, the engineering challenge of storing enough energy during the summer to see us through the winter is daunting.

With the extra measures included, the cost of onshore wind power is about twice that of nuclear, and offshore wind, solar and tidal are between three and four times as much.In context, the excess spend equates to between 20 per cent and 50 per cent of the NHS budget.While we may use less energy per head overall, a considerable expansion of electrical generation is required to replace fossil fuels in transport and heating, as well as address population growth.A high cost and environmentally intrusive platform of renewables is not an auspicious starting point.

Should not the Oxford vision be one of uranium power today, thorium power tomorrow and fusion power on the day after? Is Oxford leaving it to others to prick the renewables bubble with the pin of rigour? James Anderson Molecular marmalade April 2015 My friend, David Durie (Christ Church, 1963) is the only person I know who has made marmalade from oranges from his own trees ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, p.

 When he was Governor of Gibraltar, he lived in the official residence, the Convent, which had a lot of Seville orange trees in thegarden.When he was less grand, his marmalade was pretty good.The marmalade he gave me as a gift, after a stay in the Convent, was outstanding!Serge Lourie I was very pleased to see from the Trinity 2015 Oxford Today (p.57) that the Oxford University Motor Drivers’ Club (OUMDC) is still in existence, and active, unlike another club of which I was a keen member, the Railway Society (OURS).

I was OUMDC secretary during my second year, 1967/8.One of my predecessors, a year or so before, had pulled off a real coup in getting Graham Hill to visit and give a talk — the humorous and racy (in every sense) nature of his talk can be only too easily imagined! My own tenure began well as I was able in my first term to invite Tony Rolt of Ferguson Engineering — four-wheel-drive pioneers from my home city of Coventry.I then aimed higher, and was able to persuade Jackie Stewart to come and talk; however, disaster struck, for me at least.About a week before the date, I was told he could not come because of duties elsewhere, the details of which had to be kept secret.It was a week or so before it emerged into the public domain that Jackie had been secretly testing, in Spain if my recollection is correct, the new Formula 1 car designed by Ken Tyrrell, the first under his own name.

A ‘good cause’, I suppose, but not in my eyes! I have never had the chance to meet Jackie and tell him of my disappointment! After that, the rest of my tenure, was, in my fellow committee members’ eyes, and indeed mine, very flat.As current president Doug Henderson has discovered, the club in my day was heavily involved in road rallying, not only in running weekly ‘12-car’ events during each term (I recall I finished third in the navigators’ section two years running), but also in organising in mid-Wales a very well-known round of the Motoring News Road Rally Championship, the ‘Targa Rusticana’.This event actually gave its name to a system of road rally timing— ‘Targa Timing’ — whereby each marshalled timing point had a clock set to be at zero when the first car was due, regardless of the actual time.This system, devised by a former Club officer called John Brown, who went on to be a professional co-driver, was simpler for working out the overall times for each car, but unfortunately had the side effect that there was no way of checking that each stage had been covered at an average speed of 30mph or less, as required by RAC Motorsport rules! Consequently it was, some time after I went down, banned by the RAC! If Doug would like any more history or tales of my era, don’t hesitate to give him my email address, and if I’m in Oxford, during his Presidency, I imagine there are still pubs in Jericho.? Peter Deacon Nye: The Political Life of Aneurin Bevan ( Oxford Today, Trinity 2015, p.

55 and online here) doesn’t mention Bevan’s main work In Place of Fear.When I was first a Labour Party activist, in Battersea, in the Seventies, I read it and found it much more resonant than Crosland’s The Future of Socialism, Bevan was superior orator to Crosland, and wrote well too, drawing on his personal experience as a miner before he became an MP.The strength of In Place of Fear is, among other things, its account of the founding of the NHS and why it was so important; whereas in The Future of Socialism there is a more detailed analysis of how socialism might adapt to changing conditions.Neither work anticipated Thatcherism and privatisation.Chris Purnell April 2015 Just a quick email message to say how lovely it was to read the interview with Sir Peter Stothard ( Oxford Today, Trinity 2015, p.

In my first year (and quite possibly only my first or second term) at Trinity College, Peter Stothard came back to give a talk in college.That talk motivated me to write, review and edit with university publications Isis, The Word and the Oxford Student.I later went onto win third prize in the Young Financial Journalist of the Year Award 1998 and worked in regional newspapers for a number of years before moving into the world of writing short fiction and poetry.I just wanted to say a belated thanks to him for that inspiration, and more generally to alumni taking the time to come back and encourage new students.

I also found the libraries and digital preservation feature in this issue most fascinating (‘The uncrowned tech monarchs’, p.29), both the interesting historical details of the Bodleian’s blacksmith conveyor belt and also the overwhelming volume of data currently being created.It reminded me that not all data is knowledge but how difficult it can be in the now to predict exactly what will and won’t be relevant in the future, looking back historically.An ongoing dilemma not just for those involved in the storage but for all of us, all being involved, directly or indirectly, in this data creation.A very thought-provoking issue, thank you! Sarah Leavesley (n e James) April 2015 Regarding the Castle Mill flats, you say that ‘the University plans to mitigate the appearance of the buildings with additional landscaping and tree planting’ (‘Bulletin’, Oxford Today, Trinity 2015, p.

This will do almost nothing in my lifetime to improve the view from Port Meadow, and the views of the dreaming spires are of course gone forever.Nor does the published photograph come even close to representing the blocks’ true appearance from most of the Meadow.I’m afraid that our descendants will look upon those who allowed these buildings to be erected as philistines.Nicholas Arnold Gay Oriel? In the May issue ofThe Oldie Wilfred De’ath, my contemporary at Oriel, says that back then our college was ‘overwhelmingly gay’.

I was as naive in those days as I am now at the age of 80, but I never noticed anything of the sort.As far as I remember, we envied anyone who had any sort of relationship with the other sex, given the shortage of acceptable females.Was I blind?What other exciting stuff was going on?Perhaps your readers can enlighten me.Ron Farquhar Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, p.As an undergraduate I believed Oxford the sanest spot on earth.Time has only reaffirmed this conviction.However it received a severe jolt when I read about Aung San Suu Kyi’s indifference to the persecution of the Rohingya minority in her country ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2012, p.Apparently the catholic sanity of Oxford had had little civilizing effect.

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I trust that the tolerance of minorities will be a salient feature of Burma’s education curriculum being developed by Oxford University.This will help placate, not inflame, an already volatile South Asian region.M Athar Tahir January 2015 The study introduced in the ‘Future of work’ is fascinating for its insights on how notions of effort and leisure have changed over 150 years ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, p How to order a lab equipment paper Platinum 12 hours 88 pages / 24200 words A4 (British/European).

M Athar Tahir January 2015 The study introduced in the ‘Future of work’ is fascinating for its insights on how notions of effort and leisure have changed over 150 years ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, p.

20, Consider, for instance, a factory that employs 12-year-old children.

Except these wouldn’t be the grey-faced waifs enslaved to the looms of the nineteenth century .Except these wouldn’t be the grey-faced waifs enslaved to the looms of the nineteenth century.Rather they could be super-moppets in, say, Rockville, Maryland, suburbia who’re putting in some skill-forming hours from home or school as they virtually punch in to an automotive parts manufacturer in India.They would be learning in engaging, purposeful, and possibly saleable ways best website to write a college environmental problems presentation Vancouver 9 days British.They would be learning in engaging, purposeful, and possibly saleable ways.Derek Leebaert December 2014 Professor Lawrence Goldman’s description of the outbreak of World War I during the summer vacation at the University in August 1914 ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, pp.36–43) stirred memories of a similar scene at Christ Church during Michaelmas term, 1945.At that time I was serving in the US Army.The War in Europe ended in May 1945, and I then went on to serve in the army of occupation in Berlin.I had been transferred to Berlin for the occupation as part of the US Third Army.

During this time the US Army provided an opportunity for those soldiers awaiting discharge to apply for transfer to a programme at Oxford.My application to study at Oxford was accepted for participation in the PP&E programme while matriculating and residing at Christ Church.The highlight of this for me was a tutorial with Professor Roy Harrod, the distinguished economist, who had just returned from Bretton Woods where he participated with Professor John Maynard Keynes in the development of the International Monetary Fund.My rooms at Christ Church were in Tom Tower, just under the large bell that struck each evening at a designated time.On one occasion I was offered access to the top floor of the Tower where the ropes were placed to ring the bell.

On that occasion I saw several large wardrobe cases which I was told had been placed there by German students who were then living at Oxford and who had to leave Oxford suddenly when World War II broke out to report back to Germany for service in the German army.What happened to these cases (or to the students) I don’t know, but once again it was apparent that the more things change, etc.Maurice S Spanbock Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, pp.36–43) is a brilliant account of the power of education to unite people, and in particular, German students with Oxford University, a proud tradition that continues today.I would like to point out that the German presence in Oxford has always been fascinating and compelling.

One very memorable anecdote: During the rise of Nazism, Jewish scientists in Germany either lost their jobs or went abroad for university posts.One of these scientists was quantum physicist Erwin Schr dinger, who wanted to work at Oxford, but one condition — he wished to live with two women at once, his wife and his mistress! College authorities frowned upon his open relationship and barred him from the University.I wonder, if Schr dinger were to apply now, would Oxford still bar him? While I am speaking about renowned scientists, let me take this opportunity to present a challenge to Oxford.Why, fellow Oxonians, must you allow Cambridge to get all the credit for Stephen Hawkings’ education? I am talking about the current film, The Theory of Everything, starring Eddie Redmayne as the young Hawking.This film (brilliant, by the way, and featuring Oxonian Felicity Jones, Wadham College, 2006), fails to give Oxford credit for providing a solid foundation for Hawking’s education (University College, 1959).

I am calling all current and would-be Oxonian filmmakers to create a film about Stephen Hawking’s time at Oxford.(He could possibly give Rob Lowe a run for his money in a funnier version of Oxford Blues!) It appals me that so many people here in New Jersey — and the rest of the galaxy — think that Hawking was solely a Cambridge man.Please, please tell the world the wonderful story of Hawking the Oxonian! Reynaldo Nera Obed Dr Cartright and Dr Leggett argue passionately for and against ‘fracking’ respectively ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, pp.They both make good points, but this debate can be put on a more rational basis.

The first step is to use the right terminology.‘Fracking’ is short for ‘hydraulic fracturing’ which is a technique for stimulating well production, which was developed by Haliburton in the 1940s.When campaigners object to ‘fracking’, people in the industry smile and even laugh, because it is just a technique which has been widely used for more than 60 years in both conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon production.The campaigners are objecting, not to the technique, but to the new industry to extract hydrocarbons from shale.This involves not only multi-stage fracking, but also horizontal drilling, with wells every 1.

5 miles plus considerable infrastructure, and it industrialises the countryside.An expert speaking on Radio 4 recognised that ‘fracking’ does not properly describe this industry, and proposed ‘horizontal drilling’ instead.We propose that this new industry should be called ‘shale fracking’ of ‘shracking’ for short.‘Shale fracking’ is the industry to force hydrocarbons out of shale by unconventional means, as opposed to the conventional industry, where the hydrocarbons are pumped out.

The main driving force behind shale fracking in the UK is the economic argument, that since it has transformed the economy in the USA (with lower energy prices and increased industrial competitiveness), therefore it can do so here.We argue that this is unlikely to be the case.Firstly, the US has 40 times the land area of the UK, and so they can afford to loose a few million acres.They have vast open spaces, relatively uninhabited, where the adverse consequences of this new industry (which the Government's chief scientific advisor recently warned could be on a par with thalidomide, asbestos, dioxins and many pesticides) will not affect many people.

Furthermore, our population density is eight times theirs, so every square mile shracked affects eight times as many people.5 times as much oil per square mile as they do.Thus to get the same economic impact as they have had, we would have to shrack proportionately 2.

Furthermore, this would affect eight times as many people per square mile on average as them, and so the total number of people adversely affected by shracking, to get the same economic impact, would be 20 times as great as in the USA.Some people might find this acceptable if one could achieve significant economic benefits, but even this is unlikely in the UK.Supply and demand requires that one has to produce a surplus to get the prices to come down significantly, but in practice this is unlikely.For example, the recent British Geological Survey Report states that there are two billion to eight billion barrels of oil in the shale beneath the Sussex Weald, which sounds a lot.However, Professor Aplin of Durham University points out that shracking is notoriously inefficient at extracting oil and gas.

The most one can expect, based on US experience, is to extract five per cent, which brings these figures down to 100 to 400 million barrels.In practice Aplin says the extraction efficiency is likely to be less, maybe only one per cent, because Weald shale contains clay which makes it harder to fracture.So if the Weald was shracked from end-to-end, it would produce 20 to 80 million barrels, which is about two to eight weeks supply for the whole of the UK (100 to 400 million barrels is only 10 to 40 weeks supply).This is unlikely to affect market prices.Furthermore many will ask, do we want to destroy the Weald for the sake of a few weeks supply of oil? It seems highly likely that this is a financial ‘bubble’ where we are being asked to gamble the British countryside for the sake of long-term energy supplies which cannot be achieved.

An alternative, tidal power, has not received the attention it deserves, and as a maritime nation we could excel in it.Unlike shracking, tidal power does not produce CO2 or poison the earth.Furthermore, unlike shracking wells, which usually dry up after a year or two, tidal power will continue to be available as long as the moon goes round the earth, and so will produce clean energy for centuries to come.Richard J Ellis November 2014 Regarding Helen Massey-Beresford’s article on whether we should continue to use the name of the river Isis, my thoughts are that its name through Oxfordshire and Berkshire probably predates that of the Thames.The Isis meets the Thame just south of Dorchester, the confluence thereby logically being named Thame-Isis (Celtic Tamesis; see also Wikipedia here and here.

Camden’s Britannia (1586) also notes that the stretch above Dorchester to the source was named the Isis.We should be proud that the river’s name has such antiquity and priority over the name of a probably soon-to-be-disbanded political faction.Matthew Kaser November 2014 I was scandalised to see the following: ‘it sounds to me like this is for all the right reasons’ ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, p.Has Dr Lee Stuart never come across the words ‘as if’? I take it that when you refer to him as ‘an English academic.

You are defining his school rather than his nationality; if so, pity the present undergraduates who are reading that subject.‘It wouldn’t have done for the Duke, sirIt would never done for His Grace’ — and I don’t think it would have done for Professor Tolkien either.Elizabeth Crague Get it right You write of ‘Reverend Dr.Katharine Jefferts Schori’ (‘Encaenia celebrated’, Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, p.Since not only is she a bishop but the primate of the Episcopal Church (the US branch of Anglicanism), her title should be The Most Reverend Katharine Jefferts Schori.Justin Ivatts, Postulant for Holy Orders, Diocese of Virginia, Seminarian Class of 2015 Knitting in lectures November 2014 Musing, at the age of 86, on the now very distant days when I studied modern languages at Oxford, I fell to wondering whether, in this digital age, the old-fashioned lecture still goes on as it once did? This thought prompted my recollection of the occasions when, in addition to or instead of the usual paraphernalia for note-taking, a few of the bolder spirits among the female undergraduates had begun to bring along their knitting to certain classes at the Taylorian.This, it seemed to me, demonstrated both women’s fabled skill in multi-tasking and the knitters’ adverse verdict on the potential value of the more tedious of the lectures they had been bidden to attend.This scepticism was implicitly encouraged by one of the dons, who told his audience that university lectures (including those which he himself was unfortunately obliged to deliver) had been rendered entirely obsolete by William Caxton’s introduction of the printing press in 1476.D S Malkinson Entrepreneurial Oxford November 2014 I was delighted to read that there’s an increasing focus on entrepreneurial activities at Oxford( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, pp.

In a world in which, civil service aside, there are no ‘jobs for life’ it’s increasingly valuable for us all to think entrepreneurially even if we won't all create new companies as a result.Also helpful is the creation and development of quasi-incubators in which people can learn to work in teams and subject new ideas to critical exploration.It’s a bit worrying, however, to note that the emphasis with regards to faculty is still abstract and academic.Where are the real-world entrepreneurs who have gone through the grueling and brutal experience of moving from idea through execution to market? There is an enormous gulf between theory and practice, and an equally enormous gulf between those who watch from the sidelines and those who must somehow overcome formidable odds in order to keep the show on the road — especially when all the ‘experts’ are saying it can’t or shouldn’t be done.

I've started four companies since moving to California at the start of the 1990s and each one has taught me that great ideas are far less important than relentless execution and insane determination in the face of seemingly impossible obstacles.Being an entrepreneur means (for those of us not fortunate enough to be a Brin or a Zuckerberg) endless worry, stress, sleepless nights, 120-hour weeks year in and year out, and absolutely no guarantee of success anywhere in sight.Perhaps having a real-life entrepreneur or two involved in the various Oxford initiatives would bring a valuable additional perspective to what otherwise could end up being a series of superficial feel-good activities for most participants.Allan Lees November 2014 I enjoyed reading the letters from the Going Postal link in OT Extra November 2014.But where was this ‘Queen’s College’ which many of your readers seem to have attended? Jim Gilpin Address the big issues, please! November 2014 I enjoyed the recent issue of Oxford Today (Michaelmas 2014), and was impressed as ever by the quality of its production.

But I do wonder whether the present style, of articles, news items, scenes from Oxford yesterday and so forth, is being sufficiently ambitious in engaging the attention and commitment of what must be a six-figure class of graduates all over the world.In short, I would like to urge that, without losing its role as providing agreeable reading and visual matter, OT should also address serious major issues in the University as it is today.In my view, the vast majority of alumni, far from being out off by the presentation of current questions and developments, would be pleased to be taken, as it were, into the University’s confidence, and would feel more committed, not less.I do not of course mean investigative journalism or much-raking, which would be inappropriate to OT as the voice of the University.But I see no reason why it should not include expressions of conflicting views on current questions, for instance, to take an obvious example, the Castle Mill flats beside Port Meadow.

There has been a lot of negative publicity, local, national and even international.But the case for the building of these flats in this location has never been made publicly, either by the University or by any sympathiser.Similarly, there is every reason for serious discussion of other major projects, such as the Andrew Wiles Maths Institute (or the ROQ in general), or the Blavatnik School.

What developments the University is undertaking, what purposes they are designed for, how they are financed, and what the resultant buildings are like, are all questions which would interest a large proportion of alumni.

Another area of development which really needs to be expounded and discussed (but categorically not just in terms of bland publicity) is the huge expansion of Medical Sciences.An analysis of what elements the Division is composed of, where they are located (now largely in Headington), how it relates to the Hospitals and the NHS, what the balance is between teaching and research, and where its finances come from, are all issues of great interest, which require explaining not just to alumni but to members of Congregation.Another very significant change in the nature of the University is the vast expansion of externally-funded short-term research posts (not least in medicine).The figures given in the Oxford Magazine in Noughth Week of Michaelmas 2013 are startling: 3,650 research posts as against 1,627 established academic posts.Most of the authors whose names go on research papers from Oxford are not members of Oxford University.

This is a massive change in what the University ‘is’ and what it does, and our alumni are entitled to have the reasons for and the consequences of it set out for them to consider.Related to this is the major change in the balance between undergraduates and graduates.Most alumni would, I believe, be amazed to hear that Oxford now awards more Master’s degrees and doctorates each year than BAs.Others might see this as a reflection of Oxford’s major role in the training of students from outside the UK.

The University’s concern over the problems created for students by the Government’s immigration policy, as set out by the Vice-Chancellor in his Oration, would also deserve a place here.I need not continue — there are many other important and problematic issues over which the University could and should take its alumni into is confidence, paying them the compliment of their being capable and willing to attend to how the University is changing, and what problems it faces.To take this step would, in my view, evoke a higher, not lower, level of commitment.With apologies for the length of this, I would like to ask you to put it before your Editorial Advisory Board for their consideration.Fergus Millar November 2014 I wonder if I am alone in regretting the passing of the old terms ‘Oxon’ and ‘Cantab’ for the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and their replacement by the unpronounceable ‘Oxf’ and ‘Cambs’.

They appear now in material from or about both universities.Who was consulted about this — if anybody? Certainly not the alumni.Oxford and Cambridge are ancient institutions and there is no reason to be ashamed of it (if that is the motive for the change).Gillian Harrison (n e Morgan) Tutes and tech November 2014 Ted Norrish (‘Letters’, August 2014) refers to the distinguished conductor Sir Thomas Beauchamp.I think Sir Thomas Beecham would have had a forceful riposte to this error.

A northern industrialist would be most unlikely to emulate the Dukes of Rutland, whose Belvoir castle is invariably pronounced Beaver.John Littler November 2014 In 1946, though accepted, it was touch and go whether I could afford to go up to Oxford.But somehow, with support from Hampshire County Council plus £50 per annum from the Government of Sarawak and £15 per term from my parents, I made it.But another snag: I’d never owned a bicycle.However, my mother located a secondhand specimen for me.It was a beauty! 1926 Lady’s model, sit-up-and-beg, with a basket in front and a back carrier, a gear or two, and with strings radiating from rear mudguard to hub to prevent one’s skirts from getting tangled in the spokes.(Unfortunately I removed them, thinking my short wartime skirts made them unnecessary — and then the New Look came in with its ankle length garments.

One day she had to go in to the bicycle shop in Broad Street for a minor repair.When I went to collect her she was nowhere to be seen.There she stood, among the penny farthings.Another time I bicycled with my cello on board to a rehearsal in the Music Room.It was a bitter cold night and snow lay in frozen ridges along the roads.Just outside Keble College, Amalia tipped over.

My cello tobogganed ahead into the darkness.My most worrying time was when Amalia was stolen.Now I should mention that the handlebar had a tiny snib that one could switch up to lock it so that it could not turn to right or left.I was very sad to lose my essential and beloved transport.But about a week later, lo! Amalia reappeared outside my college.In the basket was a note saying ‘This is the worst bicycle I have ever stolen.’ Amalia travelled many miles — even around the Dordogne on a family holiday.

We five were a hybrid lot: two Moltons, one Raleigh, and Amalia with me on the saddle and our little daughter on the back carrier.Progress was leisurely, as by then the brakes were worn out and the rear wheel rim crumbling.We had to walk uphill and walk downhill.In 1987 a house move necessitated an end to a happy relationship.However, she was rescued by an antiques dealer who rushed to the rescue and who paid £5 to charity.Alison Mallett November 2014 Your item about ‘Meat-free college meals’ at Wadham shows how much things have changed over the years.When I, a life vegetarian (but not vegan), went up to Wadham in 1959 I went to see the chef about my diet.He didn’t really understand, or perhaps didn’t want to.For my two years living in college I was given eggs for breakfast, eggs for lunch and eggs for dinner! Fortunately I liked eggs and lived to tell the tale, but it must have been really tough for vegans.

Later, when my own three children, all vegetarian, went to university (Nottingham) there was a vegetarian option on every menu.Hopefully, when our six grandchildren, also all vegetarian, go to university — and the eldest is 17 this month so it is not far away — they will find it equally easy.I might add that these grandchildren are the fifth consecutive generation of vegetarians in the family — I believe it started with my grandmother — so there can’t be much wrong with a vegetarian diet! Congratulations to Wadham on leading the way forward.Derek Lea November 2014 According to Wikipedia, ‘The College’s official name, College of St Mary, is the same as that of the older Oriel College; hence, it has been referred to as the “New College of St Mary” and is now almost always called “New College”.’ But it shouldn’t ever be called ‘New’, as it is on page 23 of the Michaelmas 2014 issue of Oxford Today.

I can cite no written authority for this, but when I matriculated in 1962 somebody eminent — it may have been Anthony Quinton, or possibly even Sir William Hayter, Warden at the time — was quite categorical about the college’s name.Pedants of the world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your obsessions.Teddy Moran October 2014 I have been inspired by some of the personal ads in Oxford Today to write my own personal profile for a dating agency.Do you think it will have the desired effect? Suggestions for improvement (if possible) welcomed.

Prepare to be swept off your feet by this tall (but shrinking), blue-eyed, bald, slim, angular scarlet pimpernel.A suitable subject for those interested in the early evolutionary stages of the Darwinian theory.A misogynist whose understated virility has long gone, so unlikely to trouble ladies of refined taste. A stranger to etiquette, good manners and dress sense, he is justifiably modest given his lack of achievement.Ladies, are you looking for a challenge with few redeeming characteristics?This could be just the opportunity you’ve been waiting for without knowing it.

I think this might need some polishing, but should have broad appeal.Second opinions welcome before I submit.Sadly, not all recipients realized this was written as a spoof.Perhaps it was just too true to life! P.

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I note in the article on the Earl of Rochester (‘Rochester’s Oxford’, Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, pp.32–4) that lunchtime conversation was restricted to Greek or Latin. Even in my day when Latin was a compulsory entry requirement, this would have made for a quiet and reflective lunch! David Stanbury October 2014 Your Michaelmas 2014 issue refers to Cuthbert Ottaway (BNC), England’s first football captain, but let us not forget R E ‘Tip’ Foster (Univ), the only man to have captained England at both cricket and football How to purchase a paper lab equipment one hour Business Undergrad A4 (British/European).Even in my day when Latin was a compulsory entry requirement, this would have made for a quiet and reflective lunch! David Stanbury October 2014 Your Michaelmas 2014 issue refers to Cuthbert Ottaway (BNC), England’s first football captain, but let us not forget R E ‘Tip’ Foster (Univ), the only man to have captained England at both cricket and football.

In cricket, his innings of 287 against Australia in 1903 is still the highest on debut and the highest for England in Australia and was the highest in any Test at Sydney until Michael Clarke’s 329 against India in 2012.

In football, when England beat Germany 12-0 in 1901 (those were the days!), he scored 6 of the goals S Lab Good Practice Guide University of Edinburgh.In football, when England beat Germany 12-0 in 1901 (those were the days!), he scored 6 of the goals.In August 2014, a blue plaque, commissioned by Worcester Civic Society, was unveiled by a great grandson at the County Ground in New Road to honour his achievements and mark 100 years since his premature death from diabetes.Nevill Swanson Alexander Larman ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, pp.32-4) blithely cites Wadham as ‘later … notorious for homosexual activity, revelling in its nickname of “Sodom”’.That refers to a notorious sex-scandal of 1739, which saw the hurried flight of the then Warden to Boulogne.

There is no indication that the college was proud of the event; rather otherwise.What possible relevance can this event have to a discussion of possible homoerotic relations in Oxford in 1660, some eighty years earlier? Rochester’s tutor Phineas Bury was fond of coffee and a too easy-going proctor, according to Anthony Wood.That does not make him ineffective, or the figure of fun depicted by Larman in his Blazing Star.His former Warden, John Wilkins, no mean judge of talent, gave him responsible positions in his diocese of Chester; while Hearne alludes to his work on Josephus.There is some truth in Larman’s picture of Restoration Oxford.

But serious research, available for instance in vol.iv of the great History of the University, shows it to be drastically unbalanced.Incidentally, Pembroke, not Wadham, was (just) Oxford’s newest college in 1660.Cliff Davies (Emeritus Fellow) October 2014 First I appreciate the great majority of features in the magazine (even the extra-reverent Dawkins-leaning bits); thank you.

But now, what’s this? ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, p.

to appear to cave in to the anti-gay mob early on…’ If this tabloid-speak truly represents the boundaries of your grasp of the issues, events and personalities of this period, might it not be better to ask someone else to write reviews of books dealing with such matters? Or is that your tutor was more lenient with student prose and perceptiveness than mine was? Christopher Idle Rochester’s Oxford October 2014 I am sure I will not be the only one to maintain the very moving memorial in the ante-chapel at New College ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, pp.The memorial to UK members who died in the 1914–18 war is on the south wall and has a large number of names.But there is a smaller memorial on the east wall which lists several German names.

My memory of it is that it read something like: ‘college members who came from a distant land — entered into the inheritance of the place — returned to their homeland … died in the Great War in the service of the Central Powers.’ I always thought that this was a wonderful thing for the college to have done soon after 1919.It is in keeping with Archbishop Robert Runcie’s insistence that in the Thanksgiving Service in the Falklands War, the Argentian dead and their families should be remembered as well as their own people.Geoffrey Moors October 2014 The Shell protagonist, Dr Cartwright, in the debate on fracking in this country to obtain gas and oil ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, p.16) seems to have overlooked the one obvious drawback to this technology.

It is merely a short-term expedient until the eagerly sought gas and oil are exhausted.The main issue is neither the cost nor the safety of fracking but the simple fact that once the gas and oil have been extracted and used up there is no more.Exhausting irreplaceable reserves, whether coal, oil or gas, is typical of the blinkered thinking of exploiters ever hoping for some new discovery that will save their profits.Even the protagonist for solar energy, Dr Leggett, fails to notice the continuing supply of wind and wave power with which this country is amply supplied.Had the vast funds devoted to the physicists’ job creation scheme been used instead to develop wind, wave and solar energy sources, there would be no need for fracking, extracting oil from tar sands, etc.

, all at great expense and all resulting in contamination and pollution.Perhaps I should explain this job creation scheme devised by astute physicists to attract public funding.Theoretical physicists tax their brains to invent new abstruse unobservable particles in their efforts to explain how matter holds together so that experimental physicists can then construct enormous high-energy accelerators in their efforts to discover these particles by taxing the public to provide the funds for their experiments.A small fraction of the funds frittered away on this scheme would be enough to develop sustainable sources of energy.Dr Cartwright has somewhat stretched the New Forest to reach Wytch Farm, which is located south of Poole Harbour in Dorset.

I rather doubt whether fracking was used initially to enable oil to be recovered by the nodding donkeys there.Allan R Mears really interesting and useful in your magazine ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2014, p.59)! I now know why my London marmalade is clear, and my Nice marmalade is ‘slurry’-like; a perfect description.Dr Grace Kenny Shaping the world The Shell Professor of Earth Sciences at Oxford is incorrect in saying ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas, p.

17) that only local communities can judge whether the disruption of fracking is justified by the privileges of living in a highly developed society.But to have any relevance to the fracking debate in which the professor was engaged, such judges must be equipped with sentencing powers — as to whether local fracking may proceed or not.The relevant question is whether or not fracking is a necessary condition of a highly developed society.

Moreover, such a democratic deficit throws doubt on whether our society is highly developed or not.So what point was the professor trying to make? Peter Lanyon Oxford Today you have adjacent articles on fracking.17 (‘Fracking’) I read ‘ production from all shale gas regions save the Marcellus has peaked already, and many of us watching the detail see little prospect of the gas industry delivering growing production far into the future.

19 (‘Power to disrupt’), also talking about natural gas production in the USA, I read ‘The majority of that rise of natural gas has come from sources such as fracking, and it’s estimated that those yields will continue to increase.This is an important area of activity with large potential economic and environmental implications.Perhaps you could continue the debate in your next edition.

Edward Lavender September 2014 I write to associate myself with Dr Mellish’s views (above) as to the needlessness of the music added to your website film clip ‘Cooking better on gas’ about the ‘flared pan’ finned saucepan invented at the Dept of Engineering Science.No music at all was needed for this factual item, the music added nothing, and it distracted from the content.Peter Neville Farewell, Tolkien’s tree September 2014 Please press for the felled tree (15 August 2014) to be handed over to Isis Innovation and/or a good woodworker for conversion into artefacts for sale on eBay to Lord of The Rings fans, then you won’t need to keep badgering impecunious old vets for money quite so often.J Leigh September 2014 My grandmother used to say of certain things that she disapproved of, ‘It’s so unnecessary’.For me, that applies to music added to the soundtracks of what would otherwise be interesting videos, such as ‘Cooking better on gas’.

It is indeed not merely unnecessary but counterproductive.Though often referred to as ‘background’ music it is typically at a similar volume level to the speech one wishes to hear and thus an annoyance and a distraction.That certainly applies to the above instance.I can understand why music was played in cinemas in the days of silent films.

I can even understand why it has continued to be used for ‘atmosphere’ in sections of films where there is no dialogue or other sound important to the action.

But superimposing it on speech is nonsensical, especially in the context of a serious technical talk (albeit in the above instance one that is only a series of brief soundbites).So, on to a query: Why do you do it? Is it just because ‘everyone else does’? Richard Mellish Margaret Thatcher September 2014 I cannot let pass Colin Alexander’s assertion that the hypothesis of human-induced climate change may not be correct as we don’t know what caused warm periods in Roman and medieval times ( Oxford Today, Trinity Term, Letters, p.This assertion is wrong in logic as well as in science.In logic, we may not know what ‘A’ was that previously caused ‘B’, but that does not imply that we cannot know that ‘C’ causes ‘B’ today.

This is a logical fallacy known as a non sequitur.This is one of 176 myths perpetrated by those who deny that climate change is happening and largely man-made according to .The link between man-made emissions and recent global warming is based on basic principles of Physics discovered in the 19th century and uncontroversial until the implications started to be realized.Robin Tucker This issue was, to my mind, the best ever.Women at Oxford never received such good coverage before, with Margaret Thatcher, Barbara Pym, and Jennifer Cole featured.

Now, if we only had more than one woman out of ten musicians in ‘The sound of changing music’; Elizabeth Eva Leaches was sort of lonely there.Men at Oxford received a brilliant linking together of disparate individuals in ‘Rendezvous with death’, on the deaths on the same day of Aldous Huxley, CS Lewis, and JF Kennedy.I think Oxford Today does the same thing in every issue, bringing disparate topics together in a single issue.‘Eye of the beholder’ on Oxford architecture and ‘Varsity wine-tasting’ may well bring more letters to the editor than all the ones which particularly attracted the attention of an English Language and Literature student.John Willoughby The Trinity 2014 number of Oxford Today (Tom Doak, Letters, p.

9, and below, November 1913) reflects ongoing concerns about the teaching of modern languages at Oxford.I can’t speak for the present, or for the 1970s, but in the 1950s the regulations held out the Oxford modern languages course to be an introduction to the language, literature and culture of the subject society.As I recall, no societal or artistic context to the literature was taught, there was no literary analysis and the language teaching was vestigial (‘If you want to learn the language, go to Berlitz’).It was in fact a scramble through a thousand years of literature (in 72 weeks!) No wonder the lectures were unsatisfactory.The tutorials had moved on before the lecturers had got into their stride.

Oxford in those days offered a good fellowship and a useful degree, but it was not a serious course of academic study.It seems that the course was fundamentally for boys with bilingual backgrounds (‘You know all this, of course’) wishing to add an Oxford degree to their foreign school studies.How far do these attitudes persist? RH Morris It is hard to understand why Oxford Today would run Oliver Lewis’s naively adoring interview with former general David Petraeus (11 August 2014).This puff piece, replete with references to the hero’s glorious military career, his presidential demeanor, and his devotion to higher education, reads like nothing so much as a Petraeus for President ad, viz: ‘As the two generals sat in the debating chamber of the Oxford Union the affection and respect between them created an atmosphere of intellectual challenge and honest answers.At times it felt as if they could have been back in Iraq and Afghanistan, where Sir Nick was the deputy to General Petraeus as the commander.

But occasionally we broke free of the intimacy and saw glimpses of Petraeus’s presidential demeanour, the humour and self-deprecation of the military leader coupled with the confidence and certainty of an American political heavyweight.’ Please, give us a break! Wading through this treacle, one would never guess that many responsible analysts consider Petraeus’s command of US forces in Iraq a long-term strategic disaster, his political ideas dangerously shallow, and his leadership ambitions regrettable.A serious journal would not have published this sort of school yearbook encomium without recognizing the complexity of the issues glossed over by the starry-eyed interviewer.Richard E Rubenstein August 2014 I was at BNC from 1953 to 1958, and I read Classical Greats, with Maurice Platnauer as my tutor, a fine experience.In your last issue (Trinity 2014) I read three versions of My Tech Diary.

I rose (in digs in Juxon Street — I was in college for my first two years).1–1 hours of work (prose, essay or text) followed by breakfast.Usually work in the BNC library or in the Sheldonian, or early lecture.In winter for cross-country (we won Cuppers for 3 successive years — Olympic athlete Ian Boyd was our captain).My coach was Franz Stampf, the coach of Emil Z topek, Roger Bannister, my orienteering friend Chris Brasher and Christopher Chataway.

‘Recovery’ — usually tea and dripping toast in Oxford Market! 5pm–7pm.Work usually in college or the Sheldonian 7pm–8pm.Dinner — either college, where I read grace in my turn and enjoyed beer our silver tankard; or in the Stowaway caf (south of the High Street).With friends in Turf, Turl, King’s Arms, Bird & Baby or Gardener’s Arms (max.

Once a week I enjoyed a cello lesson in Norham Gardens; and once or twice a week rehearsals with the Oxford Bach Choir ( B Minor Mass and Judas Maccabeus) instead of the pub.About every month I went to Snowdonia to climb with friends for a weekend, and in the long vacations mountaineering with our Oxford University Mountaineering Club in the Alps and elsewhere.I also enjoyed concerts (especially under Sir Thomas Beauchamp) and occasionally films (I remember The Wages of War, Monsieur Hulot’s Holiday, and we all liked Brigitte Bardot!).I cannot help thinking that in some ways our lives were more interesting.Your three writers make no mention of music or sports, and their lives are much taken up with emails and their computers — necessarily I realise.

I achieved a good ‘Second’, and enjoyed myself immensely.Ted Norrish I read with enjoyment the recent article on Oxford Cricket ( Oxford Today, Trinity Term, p.57) recounting the batting exploits of Sam Agarwal for the blues last season — that is until Sam was described as a ‘materials science engineer’.I am sure that our Department of Engineering Science has produced many distinguished sportsmen and women, but the Materials Department is proud of our own roster of blues over the years.The collective noun for alumni from the discipline is Materials Scientists, and we are pleased that Sam is the latest of those to make such a major contribution to Oxford’s sporting success.

Chris Grovenor Get it right June 2014 An advertisement on page 46 of your Trinity issue offers paintings of the ‘principle Oxford colleges’.Oh dear! John Harrison The article, ‘Re-wilding Oxford’ ( Oxford Today, Trinity 2014, pp.28–32) hit home: here in Hamilton, New Jersey, we have Grounds for Sculpture, an innovative, world-class outdoor museum that makes use of once-abandoned Hamilton Fairgrounds.GFS is an amazing place! Here is an interactive, please-touch museum where the giant sculptures integrate a five-star French restaurant, Rat’s, named after one of the lovable characters from Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows.May I suggest that Oxford, being the innovative, ground-breaking place that it is, give Grounds for Sculpture some serious competition! Bring out your inner Mr Toad and ride the yellow roadster! Consider John Ruskin, Slade Professor of Art, whose Hinksey Road Campaign — involving Oscar Wilde — combined the principles of art, environment/conservation and social justice — I can just imagine him digging up dirt in an abandoned plot of land, to create something similar to GFS….

Reynaldo Nera Obed There is a distinct whiff of Oxford yesterday around your Oxford Today report on the Hogacre Common Eco-Park.Why else would you insist in both your Editorial and your cover feature (Trinity 2014, pp.28–32) that the site was formerly known only to those who ‘played rugby or cricket’ at Corpus? Why ignore so pointedly those of us who happily played our football on those now abandoned pitches? It’s true that our plebeian pleasures were never likely to attract armies of talent scouts from Anfield or Old Trafford, but our sometimes makeshift team played a full part in the University football league of the time.Your atavistic attitude reminds me of a conversation I had with the College chaplain when I was secretary of Corpus soccer in the 1967/8 season.For some obscure reason, the chaplain was responsible for a college fund to support its sports teams.

Having learned that he had bought a full set of shirts for the rugby players, I went to see him to ask the same favour for the footballers.I forget his exact reasoning but it was along the lines that his support was limited to proper chaps who played the more noble sort of sport.The chaplain soon became a bishop, leaving me to reflect that unfair and irrational decision making is no barrier to career success, provided you’re on the side of the Establishment.Ken Reynolds May 2014 As I read Dr Maxwell’s article about laboratory literature (Trinity 2014) I was disappointed not to see reference to a couple of very old friends.

I was assigned in my science-oriented high school to read Sinclair Lewis’s Pulitzer-awarded 1925 novel Arrowsmith (Harcourt, Brace & Co).The anonymous writer of a Wikipedia article on this book says, ‘ Arrowsmith is arguably the earliest major novel to deal with the culture of science.’ Although required to read and comment on it, I found it tragically compelling.And then, while in college, I read voluntarily CP Snow’s The Affair, a 1960 (MacMillan) member of his Strangers and Brothers series.Although the series was structured around the human conflict as seen in an Oxbridge college, the main plot device in The Affair was an investigation into alleged scientific fraud.

LW Saperstein May 2014 I read Tom Doak’s letter (Trinity 2014) in ‘Class of 2012’ and can completely support his views on the lectures and tutorials in Modern Languages.I read Classical Honour Mods in 1957/8 and had excellent lecturers and a great tutor at Jesus, John Griffith, who later became Emeritus Professor of Latin.I then transferred to read Russian, and both the syllabus (which included etymology, phonology, etc.There was a shortage of transcripts from the Cyrillic bible, Dr Unbegaun was a distinguished but uninspiring lecturer and the majority of the tutors — scattered at various homes in the Oxford area to which I had to travel — were more interested in writing books on aspects of Slavonic language and literature than inspiring their students.It was with an enormous sense of relief that I escaped with a decent degree into the working world.Jack Jagger When, in 2006, Peter Hennessy’s book Having it so Good — Britain in the Fifties came out, the publishers, wanting to catch the optimistic spirit of the decade, decided to place on the spine the image of Roger Bannister crossing the line at Oxford in 1954, at the breaking of the four-minute mile ( In order to display his whole body as he breasted the tape, it was necessary to include his outstretched right hand.This meant that the semi-focused image of a spectator was incorporated into the principal picture.

The man fate had selected was Roger Pinnington (Pinners to his friends), a middle-ranking distant runner, wearing his Lincoln scarf (it was a chilly evening) who was teased about it at the time.

He was, probably, not entitled to be inside the track — but that was a different age.It is to be hoped that no attempt will be made to airbrush him out in the future years: he is essential to the complete image.One look at the expression on his face is enough to confirm the rapture experienced by all of us who were enormously fortunate to be at the Iffley Road track that evening in May 1954.Yes; a great day for the Rogers! Roger Shakeshaft April 2014 Your account of Bl cher’s visit to Oxford (Trinity 2014) offered a highly amusing portrait of Regency England and also evoked a personal association stemming from my time as an undergraduate in Modern Languages.In 1963–4 I took a year out to teach as an English assistant at a German Gymnasium in the town of Lippstadt, Westphalia.

There I lodged with the family of a Lutheran minister, a dispossessed nobleman by the name of Graf von der Schulenburg, whose family was implicated in the plot against Hitler.His countess turned parson’s wife was a member of the Bl cher family.As refugees from the Russian occupation at the end of World War II, the Schulenburgs had managed to bring with them a few treasured artefacts from their mansion, including a portrait of the illustrious F rst Bl cher von Wahlstatt, which hung incongruously on the wall in their modest new home.My landlady spoke with pride of her family connection but did not, as I recall, mention the behavioural and mental excesses noted in your article! A few years ago I self-published a translation of this lady’s memoirs which contain a chapter on the Bl cher family.During my follow-up research I discovered more about the Marshall’s immense popularity in England, including the fact that George Stephenson named a locomotive after him and that there was in fact a ‘Bl cher boot’, which rivalled the species of footwear named after his ally the Duke of Wellington.

If the former had prevailed no doubt we would now be talking of taking our ‘bluchies’ with us on inclement days.On an unrelated topic, but one which has also come up in a recent edition of Oxford Today (‘Rendezvous with death’, Michaelmas 2013), Countess Schulenburg ( geborene von Bl cher) brought me the news of the assassination of President Kennedy and remained convinced that the Russians were behind it! Norman Diffey November 2013 I don’t usually read whole pieces in Oxford Today, but was fascinated by The Class of 2012 (Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2013).Mr Eliot Ball, in particular, describes lectures as ‘almost universally very poor’.This was also my experience between 1971 and 1974.However, despite being rather a sluggish student, I did put myself out to attend the – purely optional – seminars given by the excellent Peter Gantz.

I remember another student attempting to correct Peter Gantz on an issue of pronunciation.‘Nobody knows how it was pronounced’, he simply replied.On a further occasion someone suggested he was prejudiced.‘Life would be impossible without prejudice,’ he said.He was a ‘vague’ academic of the best kind.

Perhaps it’s not the format but the personal chemistry, as always, which counts at this level.Tom Doak November 2013 I am surprised none of your correspondents confessed to being arrested and fined as a result of the Khrushchev-Bulganin demonstartion in 1956 (Michaelmas issue, 2013).Scores were, including a schoolboy friend of mine.It marked the beginning of a postwar police crackdown on students who, unlike the Bullingdon Club members, did not pay handsomely for the damage they caused.

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A few years later there was a similar crackdown on Bonfire Night revellers.

Colleges gated their students, and members of gown who did manage to join town in the traditional assault on the Randolph Hotel, Super Cinema and Taj Mahal Restaurant received swift retribution.They were kettled in Turl Street, whisked down the Crown passage, and charged in a temporary police station at the back of Oxford Town Hall How to write better essays nobody does introductions properly nbsp.They were kettled in Turl Street, whisked down the Crown passage, and charged in a temporary police station at the back of Oxford Town Hall.

Next year November 5th passed peacefully for the first time in living memory.Don Chapman Horrible Henry November 2013 So, we are now informed that Henry VIII was a psychopath (Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2013), a fact self-evident to anyone with any acquaintance with the life of this thoroughly unpleasant monarch.Does it really require an academically funded exercise to establish the obvious? The arrogant, egocentric and repressive character of this king — disturbingly portrayed in the thin-lipped and cruel likenesses by Holbein and his circle and manifested by his callous treatment of his wives — is surely evidence enough How to Write a Paper Mechanics Materials and Design University nbsp.

Does it really require an academically funded exercise to establish the obvious? The arrogant, egocentric and repressive character of this king — disturbingly portrayed in the thin-lipped and cruel likenesses by Holbein and his circle and manifested by his callous treatment of his wives — is surely evidence enough.

Even if his preoccupations to produce a male heir were one of the mainsprings of Henry’s actions, his brutalities were inexcusable even by the standards of his own age and least of all by ours.William Smith Get It Right November 2013 A spelling error (Ed: ‘extolls’ rather than ‘extols’) on page 54 of the latest Oxford Today! I’m manning the barricades as we speak, as the Philistines are upon us larry-wilson.com/lab-report/buy-ecology-lab-report-a4-british-european-single-spaced-american-originality.William Smith Get It Right November 2013 A spelling error (Ed: ‘extolls’ rather than ‘extols’) on page 54 of the latest Oxford Today! I’m manning the barricades as we speak, as the Philistines are upon us.I hope I am never witness again to such a heinous crime against all decent folk.Yours in shock, Steve Haynes November 2013 Thatcher November 2013 Charles Moore may find puzzlement at the University's refusal of an honorary degree to Mrs Thatcher in 1985 (Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2013), but many of us remember rejoice among academics that at least Oxford had not sycophantically rewarded the leader of a government that had recently cut the universities’ funding by up to 30 per cent.Some more cynically commented that it was the first time Oxford had been in the forefront of resistance to an authoritarian government since the reign of James II.

In any case, I think the fact that she had been educated at Somerville — and even her achievement in overcoming a gender-disadvantage — did not make her a suitable candidate for such an honour.Christopher Wain Bulganin, Khrushchev and Gorbachev November 2013 I was interested to read the letters in the Trinity and Michaelmas issues regarding the visit of Bulganin and Khrushchev to Oxford in 1956.With Ross Taylor, a very distinguished geochemist from New Zealand — then working in Oxford in the Department of Geology and Mineralogy in Parks Road — I walked down from the Department and we stood together on the steps of the New Bodleian Library opposite the Clarendon Building during the event.As the motorcade carrying the Russian leaders came along the Broad, an undergraduate managed to arrive at the Clarendon at the same time, parking his bicycle against the kerb.When the Russians came out of the Clarendon after their visit, only the diminutive figure of Krushchev broke into an arm-waving response to the chanting of Poor Old Joe.The tall gaunt figure of Bulganin remained austere.The next day, The Times severely rebuked the students at Oxford for their behaviour.Years later, when Gorbachev paid his first visit to Britain to see Margaret Thatcher in London, he afterwards came to Edinburgh.I happened to be passing the Caledonian Hotel at the West End when Gorbachev came out after lunch to get into a car.

The visit to Edinburgh was abruptly terminated due to the death of Marshall Zhukov in Moscow.As he got into the car, I shouted out ‘Poor Old Joe’.Am I the only person to have been at both events? Norman Butcher Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2013, and here at OT Online).In November 1963, my father, Monty Woodhouse (New College, 1935) was MP for Oxford, and he and my mother had been invited by Tom Boase, then President of Magdalen, to stay for the weekend.

For some reason, I, aged 9, was included.

I vividly remember being put to bed in the President’s lodgings in a room at the end of a dark corridor and feeling just like Mary Lennox in The Secret Garden.As my mother told the story, a dinner party was well under way downstairs when the butler whispered into Tom’s ear that there was alarming news from the US.A great deal of fluster ensued because the President’s lodgings had neither radio nor a television.College servants were dispatched in all directions to see if an undergraduate might have such a thing as a wireless.In due course one was found and the terrible news was confirmed.

At that point, my father came upstairs and woke me up.‘I think you should know,’ he said, ‘that President Kennedy has been shot.’ In retrospect, perhaps this seems an odd thing to have done to a child – disturbing in every sense of the word.However, I have always felt immensely pleased and proud that he wanted to share this moment with me.Had I known, however, that the author of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was also dead, I might not have gone back to sleep quite so quickly Emma Woodhouse November 2013 Jill Rutter's overview of Baroness Thatcher as a scientist reminded me that I once met the man who first gave her employment at BX Plastics.

He liked her, even though he claimed that she ‘lacked the common touch’.Given a specific task, he said, she would meticulously see it through to perfection, but was unable to generate ideas in research.This would have borne out her tutors' expectations.None of the contributors mentioned that the reason for Oxford withholding the customary honorary degree was the damage which Mrs Thatcher had done to education.The only abstention was that of the then-Principal of Somerville, who allegedly said that she knew what would happen to her college if she voted with the rest.

Indeed, the Prime Minister was held to have responded swiftly with the £10m cut to Oxford research funding, which alumni helped to make good.It was she who initiated change requiring substantial maintenance fees from students.As some of us cynically said, having obtained two degrees largely at public expense, when aboard she pulled up the ladder.Tony Blair was also state funded but he completed the process which is leading towards restoring the old system wherein, against university wishes, ability to pay will normally determine entry.This will finally destroy Rab Butler's innovative post-World War 2 work, which has enabled any able student to gain access to the excellence of an Oxford education.

Moreover it will mean that the stimulation of a broad social mix will be denied to future generations.It worries me that the pressing need to raise funds to preserve modern Oxford, and a tutorial system which is of incalculable value to this country and its economy, may encourage selectively favourable representations of the very persons responsible for creating that need.However, I must declare a personal bias.I read PPP at Jesus College from 1954-56 on a mature student's state scholarship, moving on to teach, before becoming an educational psychologist for state schools and finally a lecturer at Nottingham University.Had present circumstances prevailed in ‘54 I would probably have remained a navvy ganger.

Arguably less socially useful, but perhaps rather better paid.Peter Cox November 2013 I have a particularly clear memory of the evening of 22nd November 1963, when the news of the assassination of President Kennedy reached Oxford ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2013, and here at OT Online).We were about to attend a club dinner — Keble’s now sadly defunct Mitre Club.We did not allow the news to dissuade us from holding the dinner, but towards its end the President of the JCR came into the room and whispered a message to the Warden, the saintly Austen Farrer, who then told us that, sadly, he would have to leave, having received the news of the death of a very dear friend.I found myself wondering how he might have been a friend of JFK and why the news had reached him much later than the rest of us.

It was not until the next day that we learned that his very dear friend was C S Lewis.Andrew Bunbury October 2013 I was intrigued by the item in the Trinity 2013 edition of Oxford Today describing Prof.Trefethern's reconfiguring of the calculation for working out one's BMI.Would you be able to explain to me – I read History – how, with an ordinary calculator, one computes one's “height in metres raised to the power of 2.5”? It is not, I assume, the same as simply multiplying it by 2.

Richard Hopton Magdalen College, 1981 Ed: You assume correctly.On a scientific calculator this is easy: simply type your height in metres, followed by the 'power' button, usually denoted y x, then 2.On a normal calculator, you need to multiply your height in metres by itself, and then once more by the square root of itself – which is exactly the same as raising it to the power of 2.

Bulganin and Khruschev October 2013 A curious sidelight on the British visit of Bulganin and Khruschev reveals one vast difference between then and now.As they sped out of Portsmouth Dockyard at the start of their journey, the sole security accompaniment for the supreme leaders of Communism was one Riley police car, leading the way.Bulganin, seated on the right in the limousine, peered out at the unappealing vista of the deserted railway station and ferry point, possibly hoping to wave to cheering crowds, but alas all he saw was a single schoolboy with better use for a lunch hour than idling in the school quad.Contrast that with, for instance, the huge security operation in 2010 – complete with a no-fly zone over much of Long Island – for the wedding of the daughter of a president, ten years out of office.

D Connor Ferris No Justification October 2013 If the Humanities ever have to be justified on economic grounds, you are reaching the bottom of the moral pit.If governments meddle in university affairs, trying to influence the direction or justification of certain studies, the meddlers should be told in no uncertain terms to get lost, no matter what the consequences.It seems to me, and to some of my fellow-Oxonians in Vancouver, that Oxford is suffering adversely from American influences.Oxford has nothing to learn from Harvard or CalTech – except perhaps in the enterprise of fundraising.

Jack E G Dixon I was particularly interested to read the article What makes the British? Do you know if the underlying research by Profs Donnelly, Robinson and Sir Walter Bodmer has been published in full yet? If so, where might I look? Roger Holehouse St Peter's College, 1967 Ed: The research is indeed available, and you can find out more on the Royal Society's website.

Bulganin and Khruschev October 2013 I'm not sure that Keith Tunstall has got quite right the chronological relationship between Bulganin's and Khrushchev's visit to Oxford in 1956 and the denunciation of Stalin.My one memory of the visit is of the Soviet leaders emerging on to the steps of the Sheldonian and the crowd packing the Broad raising a chorus of ‘Poor old Joe’.Alan Harding October 2013 It was with great interest that I read about the success of the residents of Osney in harnessing the flow of the Thames to provide clean, sustainable energy to dozens of homes nearby.Most satisfying of all is the use of the ancient Archimedes Screw technology, which has provided a reliable, renewable source of power for homes throughout the world for centuries.Certainly, one influential Oxford man would have been delighted to read how simple, small-scale and sustainable technology is still relevant in modern Britain.

Unfortunately, the great EF Schumacher is no longer with us.But the economic philosophy he developed as a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford and expounded in his seminal book Small is Beautiful still plays a huge role in the world.It influences politicians – David Cameron has acknowledged its continuing relevance to his thinking – and the work of Practical Action, the International charity he set up nearly 50 years ago.Practical Action uses very similar technology to that employed by the good people of Osney to provide power to those who are most in need in throughout the world.Happily, Schumacher’s philosophy not only helps 40-odd people in Osney, but a million people throughout the world every year.

Amanda Ross (nee George) Memorable Dons October 2013 Graham Chainey lists many of the famous Oxford Dons of his time (Letters, Oxford Today, Trinity 2013).I came up in 1973 and owe my Oxford education, and most memorable experiences, to one individual on his list: Sir Isaiah Berlin.When my American academic advisor asked with whom I most wanted to study, I replied that I had not really found any theorist that I really wanted to study with, for a variety of reasons.He then prodded me to think harder and I said “Isaiah Berlin”.My response was: “How do I do that?” My advisor suggested I wrote to Berlin, then President of Wolfson College, so I did.He replied to my letter and told me how to apply.Berlin also advised me that, because of his duties, he could only supervise graduate students.

We exchanged letters and I answered his query regarding why I wanted to study with him.When I got the application materials, Instead of applying for the Dphil – being unsure if I would be accepted – I decided to apply to read PPE as a second degree instead.After reviewing the materials, I really wanted to experience the tutorial-based Oxford education.It was a difficult choice because this meant I wouldn’t have a chance to work with Berlin.So, imagine my surprise when Berlin reached out after I arrived and invited this young American to meet with him.

I was invited to tea and conversation with him in his office; he invited me to meet him in his home in Headington, and then to walk with him, through the University Parks.On the journey he of course spoke in his inimitable way: producing a fast-paced torrent of words and thoughts, sentences as long as paragraphs, packed with observations, analysis, history, paradoxes, and questions – questions surprisingly directed at me! – all of which rolled out in such brilliant fashion that I was spellbound and fascinated each step of the way.I felt guilty, however, in taking up Berlin’s time and offering him so little in return for what I was receiving.Regrettably, I did not make the most of this opportunity by seeking regular meetings.I was indeed privileged, however, to have this uniquely Oxford experience because of the graciousness of Berlin, who took the initiative and time to tutor this young American.

I still read his essays and continue to admire his thought.B Nelson Ong October 2013 Would anyone like to join me in creating an effective campaign to stop the granting of discretionary degrees to Oxford and Cambridge graduates? The practice is grossly unfair, (possibly) devalues other genuinely studied-for masters qualifications, and (certainly) devalues the reputations of Oxford and Cambridge.Ideally, all the essentially bogus degrees granted over the years would be retrospectively removed – but if that proved cumbersome, what would help is a wide information campaign to inform the public at large that an MA from Oxford or Cambridge essentially means nothing, has no extra study or knowledge behind it, and is, essentially, valueless.So, shall we stop this now? Who will join me? Hilary Bichovsky (Little) Oxford Today, Trinity 2013, pp.The reference to the local legend of sleeping knights in a cave in the Edge, waiting to save Britain from peril, reminds me of a very similar legend I heard as a boy in Germany.In central Germany there is a mountain called the Kyffhaueser in which there is a cave where Frederich Barbarossa and his knights sit around a stone table, through which Barbarossa's beard is growing, waiting for a circling raven to awaken them when they will ride out and save Germany from catastrophe.Somehow, the raven missed 1945! Robert Hennemeyer October 2013 As Keith Tunstall says, it was a couple of months after the visit of Khruschev and Bulganin to Oxford that the text of Khruschev’s speech denouncing Stalin was published in The Observer.However, the general contents and nature of the speech were known in the West well before the time of the visit.When the Soviet leaders were driven along Broad Street some of those watching started chanting ‘Poor Old Joe, Poor Old Joe (in unison, and the chant was quickly taken up by a large part of the crowd, perhaps most of it).

The visitors, who presumably had no idea what was being chanted, looked delighted.If my memory isn't at fault, at least one of them waved his clasped hands above his head vigorously in acknowledgement.George Mandel October 2013 The Oxford and Cambridge Club in Pall Mall discriminates against men by insisting they wear a tie, a rule not applied to women.The Club, which sports the coats of arms of both universities, has rebuffed my suggestion that it change its rules by saying it wants to maintain the standard of dress for both sexes.The Club Secretary, Alastair Telfer, does not recognise that the tie is obsolescent and dismisses the fashion sense of the Prime Minister who frequently appears in public without one.

The Club does not even acknowledge there is the question of equality for men or that the tie cannot be made a requirement in national or local government.Where are you Emily Davidson and Sylvia Pankhurst? Tieless men need you at this hour to chain yourselves to the Club rulebook until this symbolic change is affected and men can expose their necks at 71 Pall Mall without shame.With apologies to both Milton and Samson.Keith Hindell October 2013 Graham Chainey may have revelled in the shooting sticks of brilliant talk during his time at Oxford, but his circle was somewhat restricted: nine historians, five philosophers, five dons of literature, two classicists, and an Anglo-Saxon.

Perhaps it is just a further illustration of the two cultures that – nearly 50 years on – I recognised only 11 of his “22 household names”, but think that I would, in 1966, have recognised only six, and one of them only because he wrote two best-selling fantasy novels.

The world of the science laboratory is a long way from shooting sticks along Parks Road.Neville W Goodman I found the people of the British Isles article (Oxford Today, Trinity 2013, and here online) fascinating, but am puzzled how the research by Donnelly, Robinson and Bodmer links to that by Bryan Sykes and his team over many years, to which no reference is made.They all appear to a layman to have been covering the same ground.Is it a case here of academic rivalry over some some issue too arcane for a mere historian to grasp? Roger Broad Bulganin and Khruschev October 2013 When the Russian leaders came to Oxford in 1956, as described by Michael Tunstall, (Oxford Today, Trinity 2013) I photographed them on the steps of the Sheldonian from the Blackwell’s side of the Broad.It only occurred to me later that I could easily have changed the course of history.

I was using a telephoto lens on my Leica, with a pistol grip, and could easily have been an assassin as far as their bodyguards had been concerned if they had spotted me.A few months later, and in almost exactly the same location, I photographed the anti-Suez protest march.Murray Glover October 2013 Your Editorial for the Trinity Term 2013 issue of Oxford Today concludes with reference to something called a “website”.Since it is inaccessible in print, it thus creates an objectionable discrimination between the haves and the have nots, an unacceptable social division.I resent being considered a second-class citizen because I do not have whatever equipment is related thereto.

I have raised this issue with others, for on this basis there is being created another class of people in a society riddled already with such divisiveness.Please make available your products to all of your readers, and not limit them to a selected group thereof.J W Babb Brasenose College, 1948 Ed: We're sorry not everyone has access to the internet.But with 52,731,209 people in the UK – 84.1% of the population – using the internet in 2012, we hope it won't be a social division that lasts for long.

Questionable Architecture October 2013 It is a good job Marcus de Sautoy is Professor of the Public Understanding of Science and not of Architecture if he thinks the new Mathematical Institute (pictured on page 32 of Oxford Today, Trinity 2013) is “beautiful”.Like the new China Centre, it would probably enhance Liverpool John Moores University’s Birkenhead Docks Campus--but in Oxford? The University may have the best academic brains in the country but it clearly does not have the best architects if this sort of instantly forgettable mediocrity is the best that can be done.David Favager October 2013 Professors Daniels and James have unenviable tasks (Oxford Today, Trinity 2013).Education, as all your readers know, is the most important of all human activities, as most of our behaviour is learned.Medicine may be second, as it maintains the machine that education has built, even though it has so dangerously interfered with natural population control mechanisms.

The Home may be the most influential stage in education but the top is what the education practitioners look up to.Professors should be paid very much more in this money oriented society of ours.In 1964 a Cambridge Colloid Science professor told me that, were it not for his very satisfactory private income, he would be working with ICI for a salary at least twice the size of his university salary.Salary differentials mattered then in 1964; they matter even more now.Our current politicians seem to have minds so befogged with facts that they have no idea of where they really are nor where they should be trying to go.

I hope Professors Daniels and James manage to penetrate these dull minds so that they come to realise how vital is the contribution which Oxford and Cambridge make to our future.These obtuse politicians should appreciate their responsibilities and do something useful for a change.Alexander Hopkinson-Woolley October 2013 Keith Tunstall's comment on the reception given Bulganin and Krushchev when they came to Oxford in April 1956 is interesting.He says their visit to Magdalen “aroused curiosity rather than any enthusiasm”, adding that he “politely clapped as they went by”.The reception given elsewhere in the city was very different.

I was part of a vast throng of students standing outside Blackwell’s, blocking the whole of the Broad.As Bulganin and Krushchev emerged from the Sheldonian opposite, and, surrounded by square-shouldered bodyguards, came down the steps towards us, someone from the back of the crowd lobbed a brown-paper package over everyone’s heads, and it landed near the Russians.Amid jeers from the mass, bodyguards swooped on the apparently dangerous brown object and rushed off with it, while the jeers turned to the raucous singing of ‘Poor Joe is Dead’, in memory of the recent death of Joe Stalin.Bulganin and Krushchev, I remember, stood there grinning and clapping, their hands high above their heads, presumably thinking that ours was a song of welcome.After that, the beer in the White Horse nearby tasted especially good! Paul Cannon October 2013 I thank Simon Horobin for an intelligent and pleasantly straightforward article on the need or otherwise for standards in spelling.

He lists three reasons why he believes people want to maintain these standards.I believe there is also a fourth reason.The vast majority of well educated people have little difficulty spelling accurately, whether it took them years to master the skill or it came easily.For these people, bumping up against an incorrectly spelled word in the course of reading can be jarring, and – however much you want to gloss over it and move on – it interferes with the process of comprehension.If you're reading something long or complex, the last thing you want is to be hijacked by a spelling mistake, or a grammatical error, or any other form of non-standard expression.

The basic purpose of all of these standards, however dumb many of them are, is to not get in the way of communication.

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Jeremy Hyland Memorable Dons October 2013 Graham Chainey mentioned the great names of the necessarily narrow English literary world.In my time I learnt under the greats of the much wider world of Natural Philosophy including Nobel Prize winners and many FRSs’.Oxford in the mid 1950s was indeed world class John Pope Many will have read with interest Judith Keeling’s account of the Oxford DNA project ( What makes the British?) which can offer new answers to the question of “what happened to the Romano-British population when the Angles, Saxons and Jutes invaded following the fall of the Roman Empire in Britain?” Those interested in this question can profitably re-read the books and articles of AW Wade-Evans (Jesus College, 1893), and especially his conclusions in The Emergence of England and Wales (2nd and writing an essay, this pack is a good starting point if you want   Tomorrow you start your first day on a work experience placement at an accountancy firm,  .Oxford in the mid 1950s was indeed world class John Pope Many will have read with interest Judith Keeling’s account of the Oxford DNA project ( What makes the British?) which can offer new answers to the question of “what happened to the Romano-British population when the Angles, Saxons and Jutes invaded following the fall of the Roman Empire in Britain?” Those interested in this question can profitably re-read the books and articles of AW Wade-Evans (Jesus College, 1893), and especially his conclusions in The Emergence of England and Wales (2nd.

Over many years Wade-Evans had maintained that the Brythonic population of what became England was neither extinguished nor driven westwards.He might well feel vindicated if he could read about the “substantial amount of ‘ancient British’ DNA” in the modern population of England Best website to order statistics laboratory report US Letter Size Proofreading   How to buy statistics laboratory report double spaced Business 14 days for me   hour; Essay writing services uk writings; How to write laboratory report sociology 100%   laboratory report cheap Oxford Standard 77 pages / 21175 words double  .He might well feel vindicated if he could read about the “substantial amount of ‘ancient British’ DNA” in the modern population of England.Wade-Evans wrote as a nationalist who wanted his fellow-Welshmen to see themselves as essentially a political or civic community and not, as the age-old tradition had maintained, a racial group that had been displaced.

That tradition has shaped the relationships of the peoples of Britain, and of all its outcomes the most decisive was the Battle of Bosworth write me a theology case study 127 pages / 34925 words Standard A4 (British/European).

That tradition has shaped the relationships of the peoples of Britain, and of all its outcomes the most decisive was the Battle of Bosworth.

Reading Wade-Evans we may, at certain important junctures, wish he would present more concrete evidence for what must have been, to him, certainties larry-wilson.com/case-study/write-me-a-theology-case-study-127-pages-34925-words-standard-a4-british-european.Reading Wade-Evans we may, at certain important junctures, wish he would present more concrete evidence for what must have been, to him, certainties.But he deserves respect for his independent approach to some fundamental issues.D Glyn Jones June 2013 The decision by the University in 1985 not to award Lady Thatcher an honorary degree now looks even poorer, in the light of the generous tributes that have been paid to her, from all over the world and including many from political opponents.The University’s decision stands in marked contrast to the attitude of Lady Thatcher's old college, which appointed her an honorary fellow.In an interview with the Times on 13th April, its Principal, Dr Prochaska, commented that Lady Thatcher "will come to be seen as one of Oxford's greatest alumni".

Rather than displaying the detachment that one would expect of it, the University seemed concerned mainly about its own interests.According to the Guardian (30 January 1985), “The scale of the Prime Minister's defeat was due to a huge turnout by scientific and medical dons, who rarely take part in academic debates but have been roused by the effects of government economic cuts on their research.” So what were these “cuts” in research funding? Between 1978-79 and 1984-85, the grants-in-aid provided by Lady Thatcher’s governments to the five Research Councils increased by 93 per cent in cash terms, and by nine per cent in real terms (reply to a Parliamentary question by Mr Brooke, Secretary of State for Education and Science, on 26 February 1985 (Hansard Volume 74, columns 106-107).Then, as now, alleged “cuts” did not always refer to reductions in funding, but to smaller increases than the recipients hoped for, or felt they deserved.Having failed to honour Lady Thatcher with an honorary degree, does the University now have any plans to honour her in some other way? Nicholas Owen June 2013 I realise that any list will be incomplete, biased or simply not have the necessary information – but I noted the absence from the list of famous Indian oxonians of my father, Prof.

Samuel Mathai, who was a distinguished academic, Secretary of the UGC & Visiting Distinguished Professor at London University & Kansas, USA, ending his career as the Vice-Chancellor of Kerala University.He was at Hertford College from 1937 to 1939.Manorama Mathai Moss The Student Press June 2013 I enjoyed Chris Baraniuk’s ‘Who Guards the Guardians?’ in your Michaelmas issue, and look forward to his book.Lack of space, I expect, meant he wasn’t able to give full weight to the fundamental change that took place in Hilary term 1953, when two New College undergraduates, Clive Labovitch and Earl White, purchased Cherwell and transformed it from nondescript magazine to tabloid newspaper.Similarly, although Cherwell journalists’ proposal to survey undergraduate sex in 1956 may, as Baraniuk writes, have tickled Fleet Street’s palate, that ever-interesting topic had been in the public domain since Norman Longmate (Worcester, 1947) in his 1954 book Oxford Triumphant calculated, on what it would be flattering to term flimsy evidence, that one in three female and one in five male Oxford undergraduates were enjoying active sex-lives; one wonders if Fleet Street’s successors would express a flicker of interest today? 2013 will of course mark Cherwell’s Diamond Jubilee as a tabloid: those familiar with student journalists confidently anticipate a party of some sort.

Cherwell, 1954 Oxford Today, Trinity 2012, p.I would guess most of his contemporaries would remember how his facility in Russian gave him a leading role in welcoming Bulganin and Krushchev to the college in April 1956.Stalin was dead but the Cold War was well under way and the visit of Bulganin and Krushchev aroused curiosity rather than any enthusiasm.I remember we politely clapped as they went by.

The duo had arrived on a Russian warship which docked in Portsmouth harbour.The mysterious disappearance of Commander Crabbe, while apparently investigating the hull of the ship, was perhaps the public's main memory of the visit.A headless body was found a year later and the coroner said he was satisfied it was him.It was a couple of months after the visit that the Observer published Krushchev's denunciation of Stalin.I remember my initial disappointment that Sunday morning in the JCR to find the paper had omitted all their usual articles to make way for the speech.

Keith Tunstall Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2012, pp.Moritz’s parents “were welcomed into England as Jewish refugees in the 1930's”.Mr Moritz's father lectured at Cardiff University and Mr Moritz himself was born in Cardiff, attending a state comprehensive school in the city.Mr Garth makes the erroneous, prevalent assumption that England is synonymous with, sometimes, Great Britain and, at other times, with United Kingdom.

I can recall Jewish refugees, and indeed other child refugees from the Spanish civil war, arriving in South Wales in between 1936 and 1938.It was not England alone who opposed the Nazis: it was the UK, including Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales.All four constituent parts of the UK have their own identity.Each part carries this distinct identity proudly.Howard Williams June 2013 I had no school qualifications on admission to Oxford University.

I had studied two years at Ruskin College for a University Diploma in Social Studies, and before that been a shipbuilding shop steward, a community activist and volunteer over my 15 years since leaving school.One of my tutors at the Institute of Economics came from a similar background in the railway industry.After Oxford I went on to be a College Principal in Manchester.Harry Quick seems not to understand one of the implications of what being a University means – that it is to do with broadening, widening and deepening; his notion is narrow, shallow even.Quick says he wants nothing to do with “making universities instruments of social policy”; I wonder what the University’s Department of Social Policy and Intervention has to say about that? Andrew Cole wants to “resist left-wing extremists” and to “not dilute standards of admission'.

But we did need to change them over the last 30 years, to make them more appropriate for adults with a range of experience in industrial, community, social and family developments.David Browning June 2013 It was very disappointing that the list of Famous Indian Oxonians made no mention of Professor Bal D.Tilak (1918-1999), who obtained his DPhil via Queen’s and 20 months in the Dyson Perrins Laboratory in 1946.He was a great patriot, and his father – of whom there is a statute in Pune (Poona) – was one of the early founders and organisers of the independence movement which was continued and later led by Ghandi.

He stayed in India despite very attractive offers abroad, and was Director of the National Chemical Laboratory in Pune from 1965-74.He completely changed the emphasis of that laboratory from 100 percent academic research, encouraging his staff to take consultancies and do contract research for industry.This was very successful, enabling the country to be less reliant on chemicals from abroad, and led to a number of valuable patents.He led Government delegations to some countries, and was a member of others.

On retirement he founded the Centre for the Application of Science and Technology for Rural Development, which led to the production of cooking stoves which were very economic in fuel use, and water purification methods for rural inhabitants.

He received many honours, including the third highest civil honour in India, the Padma Bhusan (which can only be held by one person at a time), for his services to India and his achievements in chemical research.R M Acheson June 2013 There have been enormous improvements in Oxford Today in recent years.From humble beginnings it has become a magazine for which one could expect to pay at least £3 on the market – and I get it free.The only sadness is that I must now wait longer for the next issue.Alan G Draper Conscientiously Objecting June 2013 I went to Oxford in October 1939 just after war had been declared.In my first week I set out, with some friends, to a meeting, when suddenly the air raid alarm sounded, a new and frightening noise.We hurried back to college thinking there would be a devastating raid, but nothing happened and we got to our meeting.Oxford was never bombed, because we were told German air crews often included Oxford graduates who would not damage their alma mater.I was called up with the first recruitment summons, but we were allowed to stay and continue our courses.

As a lifelong member of the Society of Friends (Quakers) I had registered as a Conscientious Objector.Tribunals were very fair to Quakers COs, respecting their peace testimony and refusal to take part in all outward wars and strife but, understandably, we were open to the accusation of cowardice at times.At one of our college JCR meetings a third-year student stood up and inveighed furiously against COs as “lilylivered cowards who ought to be reviled and punished”.At a church service I attended the preacher exhorted all young people in the congregation to join up and fight for King and country.But the college, the University and people as a whole were outstandingly tolerant and even sympathetic.

All I could do to reconcile my pacifist convictions with my desire to remove Hitler was to work in hospitals and homes for the elderly during vacation and during the blitz.Not very glorious – but marginally useful, I hope.And now, aged nearly 92, I am very grateful to receive the help and affection of my family and of friends – one or two of whom came up with me in October 1939! Edray Allott Michael Moritz Thank you for your latest copy of Oxford Today which my husband David and I find so absorbing.Particularly, I am interested in the article on Michael Moritz ( Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2012, pp.28–9, and online here), as I knew his father, Alfred, very well when he was in Oxford in the late forties of the last century.

He had digs in Divinity Road at the house of my friend Margaret Hornsey.We spent many happy evenings together, and I remember what an interesting man he was and what a wonderful sense of humour he had.We spent most of the time laughing at his wisecracks.I met Doris once, but then I moved away to Norfolk having married in 1950.I regretted losing touch with them and often wondered where Alfred was and what he had made of his life.

Beryl Rees June 2013 Like Andrew Cole I came from modest origins to Hertford – but did not then, and do not now, assume that opportunities to reach Oxford are therefore fair and equal for all, regardless of socio-economic and educational background.It is surely in Oxford's interests, as well as those of able and well motivated pupils, to encourage applications from all backgrounds and schools, and if necessary support financially those who gain entrance.Beyond that, it seems important to seek out potential for academic success at Oxford by considering applicants in the round, including not just their high A-level achievements but also the road they have trodden to achieve them.His and my College, and doubtless many other colleges, are putting substantial and increasing time and effort into trying to asses such potential.

Gordon Davy June 2013 India’s first woman barrister was, in fact, Miss Mithan Ardeshir Tata and not Miss Cornelia Sorabji, as mentioned in the Michaelmas Term 2012 issue of Oxford Today.Miss Tata was called to the Bar at Lincoln’s Inn in February 1923 and Miss Sorabji was called to the Bar at Lincoln’s Inn in June 1923.However, Cornelia Sorabji was the first woman ever to practice law, as a pleader, in a court in India.This was long before women in Britain were allowed to do so practice – a precedent set by Ivy Williams, the first British woman called to the Bar in 1922.

Kusoom Vadgama June 2013 Your correspondent Harry Quick completely misses the point I made regarding elitism and the disruption of the boat race.His confusion seems to lie between academic and financial elitism.Oxford, and other high class universities, exist to create an academic elite and a centre of learning.To achieve and maintain standards requires the selection of the very best students.If financial assistance can be given to our brightest young people from poorer backgrounds – how very welcome is the Moritz donation – we will all benefit from fine minds.

Certainly, academic standards should never be compromised, but nor should excellent candidates be frightened away by either cost or the thought that it's 'too posh'.I am not interested in making any university an instrument of social policy, but I am very interested in getting the best possible students.The man who swam across the boat race had a very different agenda.He mistakenly believed that Oxford and Cambridge provide an education for the financial elite.Harriet Wilson Oxford Today, Michaelmas 2012, pp.28–9, and online here) began with a quotation from the donor: “I would not be here today were it not for the generosity of strangers.In my case those strangers were the ratepayers and the taxpayers of my country, whose contributions enabled me, a boy from a low-income, working class household, to enjoy a university education.

I applaud Moritz’s generosity, but I would rather be part of a society in which students from poorer families are supported by the consenting, collective actions of their better-off fellow citizens than one in which they are dependent upon the fortuitous and random philanthropy of super-rich individuals.

John Weeks June 2013 Phillida Bunkle may well be right to suggest that many of the discriminations suffered in the past and currently by women are the result of men having power and being reluctant to give it up.Such generalisations are easy to make but difficult to test.Where she is wrong is in at least one of her facts: it is not true that Oxford was the last university in Britain to allow women to be awarded degrees.Women were admitted to full membership of the University in 1920.A year later, Cambridge voted not to follow suit: it was not until 1948 that women were fully admitted there.

This detail may be trivial but unless we are precise about the facts our generalisations cannot be taken as sound.Jeremy Greenwood Great Dons June 2013 Reading Noel Annan's The Dons (1999) recently made me reflect on what a plethora of great dons were around when I was a student, many of them household names: A J Ayer, Dacre Balsdon, Max Beloff, Isaiah Berlin, Maurice Bowra, Alan Bullock, Lord David Cecil, Richard Cobb, Lord Franks, Helen Gardner, Christopher Hill, Iris Murdoch, Christopher Ricks, A L Rowse, John Sparrow, Enid Starkie, A J P Taylor, J R R Tolkien, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Francis Warner, R C Zaehner, Theodore Zeldin – to name just a selection.Charismatic, inspirational, often eccentric and larger than life, their presence gave the university a tremendous sense of vitality and prestige.I remember as a fresher walking up Parks Road behind Balsdon, Bowra and Berlin – all armed with shooting-sticks and talking brilliantly – and feeling I was at the centre of the intellectual universe.Where are their like today? I can scarcely name any current Oxford dons.

Will anyone in fifty years' time think to write a book about the dons of today? Graham Chainey Always look out for flaws in arguments – and that includes your own.Photograph: Alamy As the government begins its crackdown on essay mill websites, it’s easy to see just how much pressure students are under to get top grades for their coursework these days.But writing a high-scoring paper doesn’t need to be complicated.We spoke to experts to get some simple techniques that will raise your writing game.Tim Squirrell is a PhD student at the University of Edinburgh, and is teaching for the first time this year.

When he was asked to deliver sessions on the art of essay-writing, he decided to publish a comprehensive (and brilliant) blog on the topic, offering wisdom gleaned from turning out two or three essays a week for his own undergraduate degree.“It took me until my second or third year at Cambridge to work it out.No one tells you how to put together an argument and push yourself from a 60 to a 70, but once you to get grips with how you’re meant to construct them, it’s simple.” 'I felt guilty when I got my results': your stories of buying essays | Guardian readers and Sarah Marsh Read more Poke holes The goal of writing any essay is to show that you can think critically about the material at hand (whatever it may be).

This means going beyond regurgitating what you’ve read; if you’re just repeating other people’s arguments, you’re never going to trouble the upper end of the marking scale.“You need to be using your higher cognitive abilities,” says Bryan Greetham, author of the bestselling How to Write Better Essays.“You’re not just showing understanding and recall, but analysing and synthesising ideas from different sources, then critically evaluating them.” But what does critical evaluation actually look like? According to Squirrell, it’s simple: you need to “poke holes” in the texts you’re exploring and work out the ways in which “the authors aren’t perfect”.

“That can be an intimidating idea,” he says.“You’re reading something that someone has probably spent their career studying, so how can you, as an undergraduate, critique it? “The answer is that you’re not going to discover some gaping flaw in Foucault’s History of Sexuality Volume 3, but you are going to be able to say: ‘There are issues with these certain accounts, here is how you might resolve those’.That’s the difference between a 60-something essay and a 70-something essay.” Critique your own arguments Once you’ve cast a critical eye over the texts, you should turn it back on your own arguments.This may feel like going against the grain of what you’ve learned about writing academic essays, but it’s the key to drawing out developed points.

“We’re taught at an early age to present both sides of the argument,” Squirrell continues.“Then you get to university and you’re told to present one side of the argument and sustain it throughout the piece.But that’s not quite it: you need to figure out what the strongest objections to your own argument would be.Write them and try to respond to them, so you become aware of flaws in your reasoning.Every argument has its limits and if you can try and explore those, the markers will often reward that.

” Applying to university? It's time to narrow your choices down to two Read more Fine, use Wikipedia then The use of Wikipedia for research is a controversial topic among academics, with many advising their students to stay away from the site altogether.“I genuinely disagree,” says Squirrell.“Those on the other side say that you can’t know who has written it, what they had in mind, what their biases are.But if you’re just trying to get a handle on a subject, or you want to find a scattering of secondary sources, it can be quite useful.I would only recommend it as either a primer or a last resort, but it does have its place.

” Focus your reading Reading lists can be a hindrance as well as a help.They should be your first port of call for guidance, but they aren’t to-do lists.A book may be listed, but that doesn’t mean you need to absorb the whole thing.Squirrell advises reading the introduction and conclusion and a relevant chapter but no more.“Otherwise you won’t actually get anything out of it because you’re trying to plough your way through a 300-page monograph,” he says.

You also need to store the information you’re gathering in a helpful, systematic way.Bryan Greetham recommends a digital update of his old-school “project box” approach.“I have a box to catch all of those small things – a figure, a quotation, something interesting someone says – I’ll write them down and put them in the box so I don’t lose them.Then when I come to write, I have all of my material.

” There are a plenty of online offerings to help with this, such as the project management app Scrivener and referencing tool Zotero, and, for the procrastinators, there are productivity programmes like Self Control, which allow users to block certain websites from their computers for a set period.

Essays for sale: the booming online industry in writing academic work to order Read more Look beyond the reading list “This is comparatively easy to do,” says Squirrell.“Look at the citations used in the text, put them in Google Scholar, read the abstracts and decide whether they’re worth reading.Then you can look on Google Scholar at other papers that have cited the work you’re writing about – some of those will be useful.” And finally, the introduction The old trick of dealing with your introduction last is common knowledge, but it seems few have really mastered the art of writing an effective opener.

“Introductions are the easiest things in the world to get right and nobody does it properly,” Squirrel says.“It should be ‘Here is the argument I am going to make, I am going to substantiate this with three or four strands of argumentation, drawing upon these theorists, who say these things, and I will conclude with some thoughts on this area and how it might clarify our understanding of this phenomenon.’ You should be able to encapsulate it in 100 words or so.” Keep up with the latest on Guardian Students: follow us on Twitter at @GdnStudents – and become a member to receive exclusive benefits and our weekly newsletter.